اثر شیوه های مختلف آبیاری و کاربرد کود پتاسیم بر کارآیی مصرف آب، عملکرد دانه و برخی ویژگی های فیزیولوژیک ذرت رقم SC500

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه کشاورزی واحد رامهرمز، ایران.

چکیده

این آزمایش در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رامهرمز در سال زراعی 91-1390 در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی به صورت کرت­های خرد شده با سه تکرار روی ذرت رقم SC500 انجام شد. کرت­های اصلی شامل سه شیوه آبیاری کامل، آبیاری یک در میان متغیر و آبیاری یک در میان ثابت و کرت­های فرعی شامل سه سطح 0، 150 و 300 کیلوگرم کود پتاسیم در هکتار بود. نتایج نشان داد که کرت­های برخوردار از آبیاری کامل نسبت به آبیاری یک در میان ثابت و متغیر عملکرد دانه بالاتری داشتند، هرچند بالاترین کارآیی مصرف آب معادل 29/1 کیلوگرم دانه بر متر مکعب در تیمار آبیاری یک در میان متغیر و کمترین آن در تیمار آبیاری کامل با متوسط 08/1 کیلوگرم دانه بر متر مکعب به دست آمد. کاربرد کود پتاسیم محتوی رطوبت نسبی و درصد پروتئین دانه را در تیمارهای آبیاری یک در میان ثابت و متغیر نسبت به تیمار آبیاری کامل افزایش داد. تیمارهای آبیاری کامل و یک در میان ثابت به ترتیب کمترین و بیشترین میزان آبسیزیک اسید در برگ را در همه سطوح کود پتاسیم ایجاد کرد. با توجه به این که شیوه آبیاری یک در میان میزان آب مصرفی را کاهش داده و موجب افزایش کارایی مصرف آب گردید، بنابراین، استفاده از این روش آبیاری به خصوص به شیوه یک در میان متغیر، در شرایط کمبود آب و یا قیمت بالای آب زیاد باشد، می‌تواند روشی مناسب برای آبیاری ذرت در منطقه باشد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of irrigation methods and potassium fertilizer on grain yield and water use efficiency on Corn

نویسنده [English]

  • Abdollah Bahrani
Department of Agriculture Ramhormoz Branch Islamic Azan University Ramhormoz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The experiment was conducted in Islamic Azad University - Ramhormoz Branch in 2011, based on a complete randomized block design as split-plot with three replications on SC500 corn cultivar. The main plots consisted of three irrigation methods including full, variable, and fixed irrigation methods. Each subplot received three rates of potassium fertilizer as 0, 150 or 300 kg ha-1. The results showed that the plots received full irrigation resulted in significantly higher grain yield than other irrigation methods. The highest water use efficiency (1.29 kg m-3) was obtained in variable irrigation and the lowest one (1.08 kg m-3) was in full irrigation. Potassium application increased relative water content and grain protein percentage in variable irrigation and fixed irrigation than full irrigation treatment. Full and fixed irrigation treatments produced the lowest and the highest abscisic acid concentration at any potassium levels. Considering that the alternative irrigation method, whether variable or fixed, decreased used water and also increased water use efficiency, therefore using mentioned irrigation method can be a suitable method in deficit water condition and high water cost, could be better than full irrigation method in corn in this region. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • regular deficit irrigation
  • alternative irrigation
  • Zea mays
  • Relative water content
  • Abscisic acid
  • chlorophyll content
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