اثر فلزات سنگین کادمیوم و نیکل بر عملکرد و صفات زراعی گیاه دارویی خرفه

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی واحد شهرکرد، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی شهرکرد، ایران.

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاداسلامی واحد شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

چکیده

گیاه پالایی تکنیکی جهت پالایش زمین و اصلاح خاک­های آلوده از فلزات سنگین است. به دلیل انتشار آسان، همچنین تحمل بالا به خشکی، شوری و فلزات سنگین،خرفه به عنوان یک گیاه انباشتگر‌ فلزات سنگین مطرح می­باشد.به منظور بررسی اثر فلزات سنگین نیکل و کادمیوم بر رشد، عملکرد و سایر صفات زراعی گیاه دارویی خرفه، آزمایشی بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی به صورت فاکتوریل با دو عامل سطوح مختلف نیکل (­0، 20، 60 و 120 میلی­گرم بر کیلو­گرم) و سطوح مختلف کادمیوم (­0، 5، 20 و 40 میلی­گرم بر کیلو­گرم) در بهار و تابستان سال 1391 به صورت گلدانی در مزرعه­ی تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهرکرد انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که سطوح مختلف کادمیوم و نیکل، تأثیر معنی‌داری بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک گیاه خرفه داشته و با افزایش غلظت، مقدار صفات ارزیابی شده به طور معنی­داری نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش یافت. بیشترین ارتفاع بوته، وزن تر و خشک شاخساره و ریشه­ی گیاه، درصد عصاره­مربوط به گیاهان شاهد و پایین‌ترین میزان مربوط به گیاهان تحت تیمار با بالاترین سطوح آلودگی ترکیبی نیکل (120 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم) و کادمیوم (40 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم) و نیز تیمار منفرد کادمیوم (40 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم) بود. همچنین نقش منفی کادمیوم به مراتب بیشتر از نیکل بود و باعث کاهش شدید صفات مورد بررسی گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of heavy metals (Cd and Ni) on yield and agronomictraits of commonpurslane(Portulacaoleracea)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrab Yadegari 1
  • Sahar Karimi 2
1 Assistance professor Islamic Azad University Shahrekord Branch Shahrekord, Iran
2 Master graduated student Islamic Azad University Shahrekord Branch Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to soil remediation from pollution by heavy metals, a new technical has been recently proposed called phytoremediation. Purslane is also highly tolerant against lack of water and salinity and can be regarded as a hyper accumulator of heavy metals. To study the effect of the nickel and cadmium on growth, yield and other characters of Portulacaoleracea L. a pot experiment was carried out in a completely randomized factorial design with three replications in the field of Azad University of Shahrekord, Iran, in the spring and summer of 2012. Treatments of this experiment included different levels of nickel (0, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg) and different levels of cadmium (0, 5, 20, 40 mg/kg). The results of this research showed that different levels of nickel and cadmium have a significant effect on the morphological and physiological characters of Portulacaoleracea L. and along with increasing the concentration of the heavy metals, these characters significantly decreased in comparison with the control plants. In classifying the averages of height, shoot and root dry matter and percentage of the extract, the highest amount belonged to the control plants and the lowest amount to the plants under combined treatment of nickel (120 mg/kg) and cadmium (40 mg/kg) and the single treatment of cadmium (40 mg/kg). Furthermore, the toxic properties of cadmium are more than nickel  decreased most of measured characters.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metal
  • Portulacaoleracea
  • Ni
  • Cd
  • Soil Toxicity
  1. Akhondzadeh S (2000) Encyclopedia of Iranian medicinal plants 1: Arjmand Press.
  2. Arduini I, Godbold DL, Onnis A (1994) Cadmium and copper change root growth and morphology of Pinuspinea and Pinuspinaster seedlings. PhysiologiaPlantarum 92(1): 675-680.
  3. Baker AJM, McGrath SP, Reeves RD, Smith JAC (2000) Metal hyper accumulator plants: A review of the ecology and physiology of a biological resource for phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils. In: Terry, N, Banuelos G. Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Water 2(1): 85-107.
  4. Baycu G, Doganay T, Hakan O,Sureyya G (2006)Ecophysiological and seasonal variations in Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations in the leaves of urban deciduous trees in Istanbul. Environmental Pollution 143(3): 545-554.
  5. Cai Y, Luo Q, Sun M,Corke H (2004) Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Science 74(4): 2157-2184.
  6. Davari M, Homaee M,Khodaverdiloo H (2010) Modeling phytorememediation of Ni and Cd and from contaminated soils using macroscopic transpiration reduction functions. J. Sci. Technol. Agric. Natur. Resour. Water Soil Sci 14(7): 75-85.
  7. Epstein E, Bloom AJ (2005) Mineral Nutrition of Plant: Principles and perspective: 2nd ed. Sinauer Associated, Inc., Massachusettes.
  8. FuentesD, Disante KB, Valdecantos A, Cortina J, Vallejo VR (2006) Response of PinushalepensisMill. Seedling to biosolids enriched with Cu, Ni, Zn in three Mediterranean forest soils. Environmental Pollution XX: 1-8.
  9. Ghaderian SM,JamaliHajiani N (2010) The evaluation of tolerance and accumulation of cadmium in Matthiolachenopodiifolia. Iranian Journal of Botanical Biology 6(8): 87-98.
  10. Ghani A, Wahid A (2007) Varietal Differences for Cadmium-induced Seedling Mortality and Foliar- toxicity Symptoms in Mungbean (Vinga radiata). InternationalJournal ofAgriculture and Biology 9(7): 555-558.
  11. Hajzaadeh MH, Rakhshandeh M,Ghorbani A (2004) The evaluation of the effects of untidistress and unti tumult of Purslane essence in Mices. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences University of Semnan 5(3-4): 18-20.
  12. Hushmandfar AR,Moraghebi F (2011) Effect of mixed cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc on seed germination and growth of safflower. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(6): 1463-1468.
  13. Khatib M, Rashedmohasel MH, Ganjali A,Lahooti M (2008) The Effect of different concentration of Ni on morphological properies of Petroseleniumcrispum, Iranian Journal of Crop Research 6(2): 295-302.
  14. Khodaverdiloo H,Homaee M (2008) Modeling phytorememediation of Cd and Pb from contaminated soils using plant transpiration reduction functions. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 2(8): 2-16.
  15. Lasat MM (2002)Phytoexteraction of toxic metals: A review of biological mechanisms. Journal of Environmental Quality 31(5): 109-120.
  16. Lombi E, Zhao FJ, Dunham SJ,McGrayh SP (2000) Cadmium accumulation in population of Thlaspicaerulescensand Thlaspigoesingense. New Phytologist 145(6): 11-20.
  17. Manio T, Stentiford EI,Millner PA (2003) The effect of heavy metals accumulation on the chlorophyll concentration of Typhalatifoliaplants, growing in substrate containing sewage sludge compost and watered with metaliferus water. Ecological Engineering 20(6): 65-74.
  18. MiladiGorji H, Vafaee A, Taherian A,Vaezi T (2000) The effect of purslane essence on symptoms of non- used morphin in mices. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, 4(4): 8-20.
  19. Mohamed AI, Hussein AS (1993) Chemical composition of purslane (Portulacaoleracea). Ethnopharmacol 40(3): 195-200.
  20. Moya JL, Ros R,Picazo I (1993) Influence of cadmium and nickel on growth, net photosynthesis and carbohydrate distribution in rice plants. Photosynthesis Research 36(8): 75-80.
  21. Murifah SSA (2008) Growth parameters and elemental status of cucumber (Cucumussativus) seedlings in response to cadmium accumulation. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 3(5): 261-266.
  22. Parida BK, Chhibba IM, Nayyar VK (2003) Influence of nickel-contaminated soils of fenugreek (Trigonellacorniculata L.) growth and mineral composition. Science Horticulture 98(5): 113-119.
  23. Peralta-Videa JR, De La Rosa G, Gonzalez JH, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2004) Effect of the growth stage on the heavy metal tolerance of alfalfa plants. Advances in environmental Research 8(6): 679-685.
  24. Prasad MNV, Feritas H (2003) Metal hyper accumulation in plants-Biodiversity prospecting for phytoremediation technology. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 6(3): 275-321.
  25. Rashid Shomali A, Khodaverdiloo H,Samadi A (2012) Accumulation and tolerance to soil cadmium by Pennisetumglausum,Chnopodiumalbum,Portulacaoleraceaand Descurainia Sophia. Iranian Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Agriculture 2(1): 45-62.
  26. Robinson BH, Mills T, Petit D, Fung LE, Green SR, Clothier BE (2000) Natural and induced cadmium-accumulation in poplar and willow: Implications for phytoremediation. Plant and Soil 227(2): 301-306.
  27. Sahmurova A, Celik M,Allahverdiyev S (2010) Determination of the accumulator plants in Kucukcekmece Lake (Istanbul). African Journal of Biotechnology 6(4): 6545-6551.
  28. Salehi M, Salehi F, Poustini K,Heidari-Sharifabad H (2008) The effect of salinity on the nitrogen fixation in 4 cultivars of Medicago sativa L. in the seedling emergence stage. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 4(1): 413-415.
  29. Sanita di Toppi L,Gabbrielli R (1999) Response to cadmium in higher plants. Environment and Experimental Botany 41(3): 105-130.
  30. Schutzendubel A, Schwanz P, Teichmann T, Gross K, Langenfeld R, Douglas L,Polle A (2001) Cadmium-induced changes in antioxidative system, hydrogen proxide content, and differentiation in Scots pine roots. Plant physiology 127(2): 887-898.
  31. SereginL,Kozhevnikova A (2006) Physiological role of nickel and its toxic effects on higher plants. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 53(2): 257-277.
  32. Sharma SS, Gaur JP (1995) Potential of Lemnapolyrrhiza for removal of heavy metals. Ecol. Eng 4(2): 37-43.
  33. Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM (2010) Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food ChemToxicol 48(1): 611–619.
  34. Smith SR (1996) Agricultural recycling of sewage sludge and environment. CABI. UK, 23-42.
  35. Taghipour H, Mosaferi M, Armanfar F,Gaemmagami SJ (2013) Heavy metals pollution in the soils of suburban areas in big cities:a case study. International Journal of Environmental Science Technology 10(2): 243–250.
  36. Vassilev A, Berova M, Stoeva N,Zlatev Z (2005) Chronic Cd toxicity of bean plants can be partially reduced by supply of ammonia sulphate. JCEA 6(1): 389-396.
  37. Wojcik M, Vangronsveld J,Tukiendorf A (2005) Cadmium tolerance in Thlaspicaerulescens: Growth parameters, metal accumulation,phytochelatin synthesis in response to cadmium. Environmental and Experimental Botany 53(3): 151-161.
  38. Wu FB, Zhang GP (2002) Genotypic variation in kernel heavy metal concentrations in barley and as affected by soil factors. Journal of Plant Nutrual 25(1): 1163-1173.
  39. Yadegari M, Karimpoor dehkordi A (2010) Evaluation of some heavy metals accumulation within the soil and corps around Industrial Town of Shahr-e-Kord. Bioscience, Biotechnology Research Asia 7(1): 1-12.
  40. Zhang GP, Fukami M, Sekimoto H (2002) Influence of cadmium on mineral concentration and yield omponents in wheat genotypes differing in Cd tolerance at seedling stage. Field Corp Research 40(79): 1-7.