اثر تنش شوری بر آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدان، رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی و پرولین در ارقام تجاری ذرت

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

10.22034/aej.2015.514347

چکیده

به منظور تعیین اثر سطوح مختلف شوری بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی هشت رقم ذرت، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد و صفات غلظت یون سدیم در برگ، کلروفیل a، b، پرولین و آنزیم‌های آنتی­اکسیدان اندازه­گیری گردید. رقم K3653/2 در غلظت شوری 50 از بین رفت و از آزمایش حذف گردید که نشانگر حساسیت آن به شوری بود. بین شوری‌ها در کلروفیل  a و b، مقدار سدیم برگ، آسکوربات پراکسیداز و سوپراکسید دیسموتاز اختلاف معنی­داری به دست آمد. بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل a در شرایط نرمال در رقم K3615/1 به دست آمد. مقدار سوپراکسید دیسموتاز با افزایش شوری افزایش یافت و بیشترین مقدار این آنزیم در شوری 100 میلی­مول مشاهده شد. در بین رقم­ها از نظر آنزیم سوپراکسید دیسموتاز در غلظت 100 میلی­مول نمک اختلاف معنی­­داری مشاهده نشد. افزایش غلظت شوری سبب افزایش مقدار پرولین در اکثر ارقام شد. بیشترین مقدار پرولین در ارقام K3545/6، Zaqatala، SC302 و SC704 در 100 میلی­مول نمک به دست آمد. بیشترین آنزیم آسکوربات پراکسیداز در شرایط نرمال در ارقام SC302 و Waxy به دست آمد. بین ارقام از نظر مقدار یون سدیم در شرایط نرمال اختلاف معنی­داری مشاهده نشد. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده دو رقم Zaqatala و SC704 مقاومت بیشتری نشان دادند که می‌توان در برنامه‌های اصلاحی از آنها استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of salt stress on antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and proline in commercial varieties of maize (Zea mays L.)

نویسنده [English]

  • Davar Molazem
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to determinethe effect of different levels of salinity on some physiological traits in eight cultivars of corn in factorial experiment based on  randomized complete block design in three replication and  several traits of sodium ion (Na+)concentration in leaf, chlorophyll a, and b, proline and antioxidant enzymes were measured. K3653/2 cultivar was blighted in salinity concentration of 50 mM which showed its sensitivity to salinity and was removed from the study. There was a significant difference between different salinity on chlorophyll a and b, the content of sodium in leaf, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The highest amount of chlorophyll a was obtained in K3615/1 in normal condition. The amount of superoxide dismutase increased with increasing salinity and the highest amount of this enzyme was observed in salinity concentration of 100 mM. There wasn't any significant difference among cultivars in terms of superoxide dismutase in salinity concentration of 100 mM. The increase of salinity concentration level increased the amount of proline in most cultivars. The highest level of proline was obtained from K3545/6, Zaqatala, SC302 and SC704 cultivars in salinity concentration of 100 mM. The maximum amount of ascorbate peroxidase enzyme was obtained from SC302 and Waxy cultivars in normal conditions. There wasn't any significant difference among cultivars in terms of Na+ content in normal condition. Two cultivars of  Zaqatala and SC704 showed more resistance to salinity, Therefore they can be used in breeding programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ascorbate peroxidase
  • Catalase
  • chlorophyll a
  • Chlorophyll b
  • Sodium chloride
  • superoxide dismutase
  1. Arnon DI )1975( copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts;polyphenol-oxidase in Beta vulgaris.Plant Physiology 24:1-15.
  2. Asada K, Takahashi M and Nagate M (1974b) Assay and inhibitors of spinach superoxide dismutase. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 38: 471-473.
  3. Ashraf MY, Azmi AR, Khan AH and Ala SA (1994) Effect of water stress on total phenols, peroxides activity and chlorophyll content in wheat. Acta Physiology Plant 16(3): 1-18.
  4. Athar H, Khan A and Ashraf M (2008) Exogenously applied ascorbic acid alleviates salt-induced oxidative stress in wheat. Environmental Experimental Botany 63: 224–231
  5. Azooz MM, Ismail AM and Abou Elhamd MF (2009) Growth, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities as a Selection Criterion for the Salt Tolerance of Maize Cultivars. International Journal Of Agriculture & Biology 11(1): 21–26 .
  6. Bates L (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39: 205- 207.
  7. Bowler C, Van Montagu M and Inze D (1992) Superoxide dismutase and stress tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 43:83-116
  8. Chance B, Maehly C (1955) Assay of catalase and peroxidases. Methods in Enzymology 11: 764–775
  9. Cha-um S and Kirdmanee C (2009) Effect of salt stress on proline accumulation, photosynthetic ability and growth characters in two maize cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41: 87-98.
  10. Flowers TJ, Hajibagheri MA and Clipson NJW (1986) Halophytes. Quarterly Review of Biology. 61: 313-337.
  11. Giannopolities CN and Ries SK (1977) Superoxide dismutase I. Occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiology 59: 309–314.
  12. Hasson E, Poljakoff Mayber A (1981) Does salinity induce early aging of pea tissue. Oecologia 50:94-97.
  13. Hoffman GJ, Mass EV, Prichard TL, Meyer JL (1983) Salt tolerance of corn in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. Irrigation Science 4:31-44.
  14. Iqbal N, Ashraf M Y, Farrukh J, Vicente M , Kafeel A (2006) Nitrate reduction and nutrient accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil salinization with four different salts. Journal Plant Nutrition, 29: 409-421.
  15. karamanos A J , Paoatheohari A Y (1999) Assessment of drought resistance of crop genotypes by means of the water potential index. Crop Science 39:1792-1797.
  16. Koca H, Bor M, Özdemir F, Türkan İ (2007) The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes and proline content of sesame cultivars. Environmental Experimental Botany 60: 344-351.
  17. Lee EH, Bennett JH (1982) Superoxide dismutase. A possible protective enzyme against ozone injury in snap beans (Phadeolus vulgaris L.) Plant Physiology 69: 1444-1449
  18. Levent T, Kaya C, Dikilitas M, Higgs D (2007) The combined effects of gibberellic acid  and salinity on some antioxidant enzyme activities,plant growth parameters and nutritional status in maize plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 62: 1–9
  19. Mac Gregor A W, Bhatty R S (1993) Barley chemistry and technology. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Incorporate: 4-6.
  20. Mehrabiyan moghaddam N, Arvin MJ, Khajoee nejad G, Maghsoudi K (2011) Effect of salicylic acid on growth and forage and grain yield of maize under drought stress in field conditions. International Journal of Plant Production 27-2(1): 41-55.
  21. Meiri A, Poljackoff Mayber A (1970) Effect of various salinity regimes on growth, leaf expansion and transpiration rate of bean plants. Soil Science 109: 26-34.
  22. Murat A, Abdelkarim H A E, Nilgün T, Suleyman T (2010) Effect of salt stress on growth and ion distribution and accumulation in shoot and root of maize plant. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5(7): 584-588.
  23. Nakano Y, Asada K (1981) Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell Physiology 22: 867-880.
  24. Ozturk M, Ozdemir F, Eser B, Adiyahsi OI, Ilbi H (1995) Studies on the salt-hormune interactions in the germination and seedling  growth of some vegetable species. In: Khan, MA, Ungar IA (Eds.). Biology of salt tolerant plants. University of Karachi. Pakistan 59-64.
  25. Pasternak DY, Malach DE, Boroyic I (1985) Irrigation with brackish water under desert conditions. Physiological and yield response of maize (Zea mays) to continuous irrigation with brackish water and to alternating brackish-fresh-brackish waters irrigation. Agricultural Water Management 10: 47-60.
  26. Pyngrope S, Bhoomika K, Dubej RS (2013) Reactive oxygen species, ascorbate–glutathione pool, and enzymes of their metabolism in drought-sensitive and tolerant indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings subjected to progressing levels of water deficit. Protoplasma 250:585–600
  27. Ramadan A (2013) Alleviating the adverse effects of NaCl stress in maize seedlings by pretreating seeds with salicylic acid and 24-epibrassinolide. South African Journal of Botany 88:171–177
  28. Sairam RK, Deshmukh PS, Saxena DC (1998) Role of antioxidant systems in wheat genotype tolerance to water stress. Biologia Plantarum 41: 387-394
  29. Scandalios JG (1993) Oxygen stress and superoxide dismutase. Plant Physiology 101: 7-12
  30. Selvakumar G, Kim K, Hu S, Sa T (2014) Effect of salinity on plants and the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in alleviation of salt stress. In: Parvaiz Ahmad, P., Wani, R.M. (Eds.), Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment. Springer, New York, 115-144.
  31. Solomon M, Gedulovich E, Mayer AM, Poljakoff Mayber (1986) Changes induced by salinity to the anatomy and morphology of excised pea roots in culture. Annals of Botany 57: 811-818.
  32. Tuna A, Levent K, Cengiz D, David M H (2008) The combined effects of gibberellic acid and salinity on some antioxidant enzyme activities, plant growth parameters and nutritional status in maize  plants. Environmental & Experimental Botany 62(1): 1-9.