مطالعه روابط بین عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد هیبرید ایروفلور آفتابگردان در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تبریز، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، تبریز، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز

3 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز

4 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان شرقی

چکیده

    به منظور ارزیابی سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی طی مرحله زایشی بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک و زراعی هیبرید روغنی ایروفلور آفتابگردان، آزمایشی در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز اجرا شد. تیمار دور آبیاری در پنج سطح (50، 100، 150، 200 و 250 میلی‌متر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A) اعمال شد. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد دانه در 100، 150، 200 و 250 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر نسبت به تیمار شاهد (آبیاری پس از 50 میلی‌متر) به ترتیب 25%، 29%، 42% و 51% کاهش نشان داد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که درصد کاهش عملکرد روغن درسطوح 100، 150، 200 و 250 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر نسبت به آبیاری پس از 50 میلی‌متر تبخیر (شاهد) به ترتیب 30%، 36%، 54% و 62% بود. افزایش شدت تنش آب باعث کاهش معنی دار قطر طبق، وزن صد دانه، وزن مغز دانه، تعداد دانه پر در طبق، بیوماس کل، شاخص میزان کلروفیل، شاخص سطح برگ، محتوای رطوبت نسبی و درصد روغن و افزایش درصد پوکی دانه و مقاومت روزنه­ای گردید. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق، رقم ایروفلور بسیار حساس به تنش خشکی بوده و هر گونه تاخیر در آبیاری منجر به کاهش عملکرد از طریق کاهش وزن صد دانه و تعداد دانه پر (مهم­ترین اجزای عملکرد دانه در آفتابگردان) می‏گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between yield and yield components in Euroflour sunflower hybrid under water stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Abbasi Seyahjani 1
  • Farhad Farhvash 2
  • Hamdohllah Kazemi Arbat 3
  • Mohamad Bagher Khorshidi Benam4 4
1 of Agronomy and Plant Breeding ,Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., respectively, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz , Iran.
3 Assistant Prof, respectively, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz , Iran.
4 Assistant Prof., East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of water stress on Euroflour hybrid of sunflower, an experiment was conducted in research field of Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University. Experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Water stress levels were irrigation after 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mm evaporation from class A pan. Based on the results, grain yield decreased 25%, 29%, 42% and 51% at irrigation after 100, 150, 200 and 250 mm evaporation traetments in comparison to the control (irrigation after 50 mm evaporation), respectively. Besides, oil yield percentage reduced up to 30%, 36%, 54% and 62% at irrigation after 100, 150, 200 and 250 mm evaporation treatments compared to the control, respectively.Increasing water stress decreased head diameter, 100 seed weight, seed kernel weight, number of filled seeds per head, biomass, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, relative water content, and  oil percentage. Water deficit, on the other hand, increased seed hollowness and stomatal resistance. So, Euroflour is a susceptible sunflower cultivar to water deficit and any delayed irrigation will decrease yield through decreasing 100 seed weight and number of filled seeds per head which are the most important components of grain yield in sunflower.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • drought
  • leaf area index
  • Oil yield
  • Seed yield
  • Sunflower
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