بررسی تأثیر هومات پتاسیم بر جوانه زنی بذر، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد غده و برآورد میزان هتروزیس و درجه غالبیت در هیبریدهای بذر حقیقی سیب زمینی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل

2 محقق مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور بررسی تاثیر هومات پتاسیم بر میزان جوانه­زنی بذر در گلخانه، عملکرد و اجزا عملکرد غده در مزرعه و برآورد میزان هتروزیس و درجه غالبیت در هیبریدهای بذر حقیقی سیب­زمینی به مدت سه سال (89-1387) اجرا شد. در این آزمایش تعداد 3500  بذر حقیقی هیبرید سیب­زمینی رقم  HPS-II/67پس از تیمار کردن با محلول هومات پتاسیم به مدت 6، 12، 18 و 24 ساعت و کشت مستقیم بذر به عنوان شاهد، در بستر پیت­ماس بیولان در گلخانه کاشته شد. در گلخانه، صفاتی مانند زمان شروع جوانه­زنی بذر، درصد جوانه­زنی بذر و تعداد روز تا جوانه­زنی ثبت شد. تعداد 540  نشاء سیب­زمینی در مرحله 5-4 برگی به مزرعه منتقل شد و براساس طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار کاشته شدند. پس از برداشت، تعداد و وزن غده در بوته، متوسط اندازه غده و عملکرد غده قابل فروش شمارش و اندازه­گیری و تعداد 300  هیبرید انتخاب شد. در سال 1389 هیبریدهای انتخابی با رقم شاهد آگریا در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اردبیل کشت و بررسی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که بین تیمارهای مختلف هومات پتاسیم از لحاظ تعداد و وزن غده در بوته، متوسط وزن غده و عملکرد غده قابل فروش در مزرعه اختلاف معنی­داری وجود داشت. بیشترین درصد جوانه­زنی بذر، تعداد و وزن غده در بوته و عملکرد غده قابل فروش در تیمار 6، 12 و 18 ساعت نگهداری بذر در هومات پتاسیم تولید شد. در این آزمایش هومات پتاسیم باعث شد که میزان جوانه‎زنی 41 درصد و عملکرد غده به مقدار 2/1 کیلوگرم در مترمربع افزایش یابد. میانگین عملکرد تک بوته در شاهد 550 گرم و در هیبریدها 08/613 گرم مشاهده شد. عملکرد تک بوته هیبریدها دارای 67/23 درصد فوق­غالبیت، 33/6 درصد غالبیت کامل، 64 درصد کاهش غالبیت و 6 درصد بدون غالبیت بودند. در این آزمایش 33/50 درصد هیبریدها (تعداد 151 هیبرید) عملکرد تک بوته بیشتری نسبت به شاهد داشتند. میزان هتروزیس برای عملکرد تک بوته 33/50 درصد بدست آمد. در این تحقیق، از نظر عملکرد غده، یکنواختی غده، سطحی بودن عمق چشم، کوتاه بودن استولون، رنگ پوست و گوشت زرد، میزان هتروزیس و درجه غالبیت، تعداد 50  هیبرید انتخاب شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of potassium hummate on seed germination, tuber yield and yield components, and estimation of heterosis rate and dominance degree in true potato seed hybrids

نویسندگان [English]

  • Davoud Hassanpanah 1
  • Anvar Asadi 2
1 Assistant Professor , respectively, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre, Ardabil, Iran
2 Researcher, respectively, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

   This research was performed to evaluate the effect of potassium humate on potato seed germination rate in the greenhouse, tuber yield and yield components in the field and estimation of heterosis rate and dominance degree in true potato seed hybrids during three years (2008-2010). In this experiment, 3500 true seeds of potato hybrid variety HPS-II/67 were planted after treated with potassium humate for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours in the planting bed of Biolan peat mass in the greenhouse and direct seed planting was considered as a control. Attributes such as time to seed germination, seed germination percentage and days to germination were recorded in the greenhouse. 540 potato seedlings were transferred to the field at 4-5 leaf stages. The experimental design was a completely randomized block design with three replications. After harvest, number and weight of tubers per plant, tuber average size and marketable tuber yield were counted and measured and 300 hybrids were selected. The selected hybrids with Agria cultivar (control) were planted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station of Ardabil during 2010. The results showed that differences between different treatments of potassium humate were significant for tuber number and weight per plant, tuber average size and marketable tuber yield. The maximum seed germination percentage, tuber number and weight per plant and marketable tuber yield were obtained for 6, 12 and 18 hours treatments of potassium humate. Potassium humate increased germination by 41% and 1.2 kg per m2 marketable tuber yield. Mean tuber yield per plant was 550 g in control and 613.08 g in hybrids. Tuber yield per plant for hybrids had 23.67% over dominance, 6.33% complete dominance, 64% reduction dominance and 6.0% without dominance. In this experiment, about 50.33% of hybrids (151 hybrids) had high tuber yield per plant than their control. Heterosis for tuber yield per plant was achieved 50.33%. Finally, 50 hybrids were selected regarding to tuber yield, tuber uniformity, shallow eye depth, short stolon and yellow flesh and skin color, heterosis rate and dominance degree.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • True Potato Seed
  • potassium humate
  • Hybrid
  • heterosis rate
  • Dominance degree
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