بررسی اثر کاهش مصرف آب و سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن بر صفات مرفولوژیکی و عملکرد برنج رقم طارم هاشمی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قائمشهر

2 استادیار گروه زراعت دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قائمشهر

3 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قائمشهر و عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان واحد چالوس

چکیده

    این تحقیق به منظور مطالعه اثر تیمارهای مختلف کمبود آب و مقادیر کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد دانه برنج (Oryza sativa L.) رقم طارم هاشمی به صورت مزرعه‌ای در شهرستان نکا در استان مازندران در سال زراعی 1388 اجرا گردید. آزمایش به صورت اسپیلت پلات نواری در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آبیاری شامل غرقاب دائم =I1  (شاهد)، و قطع آبیاری در مراحل پنجه‌زنی=I2 (15 روز)، گلدهی= I3 (15 روز) و پر شدن دانه =  I4(15 روز) به عنوان عامل اصلی و نیتروژن به عنوان عامل فرعی در مقادیر صفر، 50 ،100 و 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن ماده مؤثر در هکتار از منبع کودی اوره بودند. اثر آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، قطر ساقه و تعداد پنجه در کپه معنی‌دار شد. افزایش سطوح کود نیتروژن، اثر افزایشی روی همه صفات به غیر از شاخص برداشت داشت. هم‎چنین قطع آبیاری در مرحله پنجه‌زنی موجب کاهش ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد پنجه، قطرساقه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه شد. استفاده از غرقاب دائم به همراه 150 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن بیشترین تأثیر را در افزایش عملکرد دانه داشت. نتایج نشان داد که، آبیاری غرقابی هر چند در مناطقی که از نظر آبیاری کمبود دارند مشکل ساز است، اما  بیشترین عملکرد دانه را در پی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological traits and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) var.Tarom Hashemi

نویسندگان [English]

  • Meysam Golduost Khorshidi 1
  • Ali Reza Daneshmand 2
  • Soghra Moradpoor 3
  • Asghar Bagheri 1
1 M.Sc postgraduate, Assistant Prof. and M.Sc postgraduate in Agronomy, respectively, Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch , Qaemshahr, Iran.
2 M.Sc postgraduate, Assistant Prof. and M.Sc postgraduate in Agronomy, respectively, Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch , Qaemshahr, Iran.
3 M.Sc postgraduate in Agronomy, Department of Agronomy , Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch and Member of Young Researchers' Club; Islamic Azad University, Chaloos Branch, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Effect of different water deficit treatments and nitrogen levels was studied on yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L.) var. Tarom Hashemi at Neka region, Mazandaran province of Iran in 2009. The experiment was carried out as strip split plot based on a completely randomized block design with four replications. The main factor was water deficit treatments consisted of waterlogging (control); and water deficit at tillering, flowering and seed filling stages for 15 days, and the second factor included four nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha) from urea source. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of water deficit treatments and nitrogen fertilizer levels was significant on yield, biological yield, stem diameter and number of tillers. Increased levels of nitrogen fertilizer had an increasing effects on all the studied traits, except harvest index. Water withhold at tillering stage affected plant height, number of tillers, stem diameter, biological yield and yield, negatively. Waterlogging with 150 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer application increased grain yield and was the most effective treatment. Despite water is the main limitation for rice production in many areas, the highest yield was obtained at waterlogging treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rice
  • Irrigation
  • nitrogen
  • yield
  • Yield components
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