ارزیابی بیماری زایی جدایه‌های مختلف قارچ Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia روی نماتود گره ریشه (Meloidogyne javanica) در شرایط آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، گروه بیماری شناسی گیاهی

2 مؤسسه ی تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور، بخش نماتودشناسی

3 مؤسسه ی تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور، بخش رستنی ها

4 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، گروه بیماری شناسی گیاهی

چکیده

مبارزه بیولوژیکی یکی از بی­خطرترین روش­های کاهش جمعیت آفات و بیماری­های گیاهی است و کوشش‌های فراوانی جهت معرفی این عوامل علیه نماتودها صورت گرفته است. یکی از امیدبخش ترین عوامل کنترل کننده، قارچ
Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia می‌باشد که توان بالایی در کاهش جمعیت نماتودهای مولد غده و سیستی دارد. طی سال­های 1383 تا 1385 تعداد 128 نمونه از خاک­های آلوده به نماتود سیستی چغندرقند و 18 نمونه خاک آلوده به نماتود مولد غده از شهرستان‌های مختلف استان فارس جمع آوری گردید. جهت جداسازی قارچ، از یک محیط انتخابی بر پایه CMA و محیط میگو- آگار استفاده شد. آزمون بیماری‌زایی روی 13 جدایه ی مربوط به ایران و جهان انجام گرفت و تعداد تخم­های آلوده ی نابالغ، آلوده ی بالغ، تخم­های خالی، تخم­های سالم نابالغ و تخم های سالم بالغ ثبت گردید. تمام جدایه‌ها توانایی کلنیزه کردن تخم نماتود Meloidogyne javanica را داشتند که درصد پارازیته کردن تخم بین 85/39% تا 17/90% متغیر بود. بر اساس تجزیه و تحلیل آماری، بین جدایه‌ها از نظر توانایی پارازیته کردن تخم نماتود در سطح یک درصد اختلاف معنی دار وجود داشت که با آزمون توکی در سه گروه آماری قرار گرفتند. تعداد 10 جدایه نیز توانایی اندکی در پارازیته کردن تخم­های بالغ داشتند و بین درصد کل تخم‌های آلوده و لاروهای تفریخ شده نیز رابطه پایداری مشاهده نگردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

In vitro pathogenicity of fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia isolates on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Mohammad Reza Moosavi 1
  • Seddigeh Fatemi 2
  • Rasoul Zare 3
  • Hamid reza Zamanizadeh 4
1 Ph.D. student of Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch
2 Scientific Board of Nematology Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection
3 Scientific Board of Botany Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection
4 Scientific Board of Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch
چکیده [English]

Biological control is a safe tool for plant pest and disease management and numerous efforts have been done to introduce biological control agents for nematodes controlling. Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia is one of promising biological control agents with high potential to reduce root-knot nematode (RKN) and cyst nematode populations. In this experiment, 128 and 18 soil samples were collected during 2004 to 2006 from fields infected by cyst nematodes and RKN in Fars province of Iran, respectively. Media for selective isolation were prepared on the basis of CMA and Shrimp-Agar. Pathogenicity test was done on 13 isolates of P. chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia obtained from CBS collection and Iran. Then the numbers of infected immatures, matures, empty and uninfected eggs were recorded. The mycelium of all tested isolates penetrated in eggs of M. javanica in a range of 39.85% to 90.17%. There was a significant difference in the ability of isolates in parasitizing eggs (P<0.0001). Mentioned isolates were placed in 3 different groups using Tukey test. 10 isolates could invade mature eggs in a low range and there was no consistent correlation between the percent of infected eggs and hatched juveniles.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • root-knot nematode
  • Meloidogyne javanica
  • Biological control
  • Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia
  • pathogenicity test
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