بررسی تحمل به خشکی 12 رقم گندم (Triticum aestivum) در منطقه شیروان

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه آزاد واحد شیروان

چکیده

      جهت بررسی تحمل به خشکی 12 رقم گندم، پژوهشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی  دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شیروان در سال زراعی 84-1383 در دو آزمایش جداگانه به صورت آبی و دیم  به اجرا در آمد. هر آزمایش  به صورت بلوک‎‏های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار انجام شد. طول هر کرت 5 متر و عرض آن 5/1 متر، مقدار بذر در واحد سطح 500 دانه در متر مربع در هر دو آزمایش آبی و دیم در نظر گرفته شد. در اوایل مرحله پرشدن دانه از برگ‎های گیاهان در هر کرت به منظور به‎دست آوردن نشت الکترولیت غشای و محتویات نسبی آب برگ‎ها نمونه برداری انجام شد. بعد از برداشت محصول، تعداد سنبله در متر مربع، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه محاسبه شد.  با توجه به عملکرد هر رقم در شرایط آبی و دیم شاخص تحمل به خشکی ( STI ) و شاخص حساسیت به خشکی ( SSI)  محاسبه شد و داده‎های آزمایش به صورت مرکب تجزیه گردید. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که  ارقام چمران و کراس سبلان در محیط آبی با تولید 2005 و 2310 کیلوگرم در هکتار از عملکرد قابل قبولی برخوردار بودند. بیشترین تولید در محیط دیم نیز به‏ترتیب با تولید 648 و 551 کیلوگرم در هکتار متعلق به این دو رقم بود. رقم کراس سبلان و چمران به ترتیب دارای شاخص تحمل به خشکی معادل 8/6 و 6/6 بودند که در مقایسه با بقیه ارقام بیشتر بود. رقم کراس سبلان هم‎چنین دارای شاخص حساسیت به خشکی بالایی بود، ولی رقم چمران دارای شاخص تحمل به خشکی بالا و شاخص حساسیت به خشکی پایینی در مقایسه با سایر ارقام بود. نشت الکترولیت غشای نیز در رقم چمران در مقایسه با اکثر ارقام کمتر بود. با توجه به خصوصیات مذکور دو رقم کراس سبلان و چمران برای کشت در مناطقی که کشاورزان با محدودیت منابع آب روبرو هستند دارای برتری می باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study the drought tolerance of 12 varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Shirvan area

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh
Scientific Board, Agronomy Department, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

    In order to study the drought tolerance of 12 varieties of wheat, an experiment was conducted in research farm of Islamic Azad University of Shirvan in the 2004-2005 growing season. The experiment was performed under two separated conditions using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The length and width of each plot was 5 and 1.5 m, respectively. Plant density was 500 seeds per square meter in both experiments. At the early grain filling stage, leaf samples were provided from each plot to determine the leaf electrical conductivity and leaf relative water content. Number of spikes per square meter, grain weight and yield were measured after harvesting. Stress tolerance index (STI) and stress susceptibility index (SSI) were estimated according to grain yield of any variety in both dryland and irrigated conditions. The results of combined analysis showed that  Chamran and Cross-Sabalan produced  2005 and 2310 kg/ha seed yield in irrigated condition, respectivaly that were higher than other varieties. In dryland condition, the yield of  Chamran and Cross-Sabalan were 648 and 551 Kg/ha that were higher than other varieties, as well. Cross-Sablan and Chamran also showed higher drought tolerance index compared with other varieties. Drought tolerance index in the mentioned two varieties was 6.8 and 6.6, respectively. Cross-Sabalan also showed relatively high drought susceptibility index, but Chamran showed higher drought tolerance index and lower drought susceptibility index compared to the other varieties. According to the results, two varieties of Cross-Sablan and Chamran were advisable to plant in regions with limited source of water for irrigation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Stress susceptibility index
  • Sstress tolerance index
  • Elrctolit leakage
  • Relative water content
  • Wheat and yield
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