اثر سامانه آگروفارستری بر خصوصیات لایه سطحی خاک (مطالعه موردی منطقه بیارجمند- استان سمنان)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

2 استادیار دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

چکیده

     این تحقیق در دو منطقه زیر ­درختان و بین­درختان در مزرعه دارای سیستم آگروفارستری به همراه مزارع اطراف (به عنوان شاهد) که فاقد سیستم آگروفارستری بودند، در جنوب بیارجمند صورت گرفت. برای نمونه­برداری به روش سیستماتیک – تصادفی (از پای درختان، بین درختان و منطقه شاهد)، تعداد 20 نمونه خاک از دو عمق (25 – 0 و 50 – 25 سانتی‎متر) از مناطق مورد نظر برداشت گردید و مقادیر کربن ترسیب شده در خاک اندازه­گیری شد. هم‎چنین در این مطالعه رابطه بین برخی از فاکتورهای فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک با کربن آلی خاک مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که میزان ترسیب کربن در واحد سطح در زیر درختان حدود 31 تن بیشتر از بین ­درختان (42 تن در هکتار) بود. هم‎چنین میزان کل کربن اندازه­گیری شده در بین درختان نیز به‎صورت معنی­داری بیشتر از مزرعه شاهد (4/7 تن در هکتار) بود. هم‎چنین مقدار کربن ترسیب شده در لایه‎ اول (عمق 25-0 سانتی‎متر) زیر درختان و بین درختان بیشتر از لایه دوم (عمق 50-25 سانتی‎متر) بود. نتایج تجزیه رگرسیون گام به گام کربن آلی با عوامل دیگر بررسی شده خاک نشان داد که تجمع کربن در خاک به علت تغییر pH خاک بوده است. ماسه و نیتروژن نیز در درجه بعدی اهمیت قرار گرفته و به‎ترتیب 4/13 و 6/5 درصد از تغییرات مقدار کربن را توجیه کردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of agroforestry system on properties of soil surface layer (case study :Semnan‌–‌Biarjomand)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Javad Amighi 1
  • Hamidreza Asgari 2
  • Vahed Bardi Sheikh 2
1 M.Sc., Agricultural and Natural Resources University of Gorgan, Gorgan, Iran.
2 Assistant Prof., Agricultural and Natural Resources University of Gorgan, Gorgan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This study is carried out in two sites under agroforestry system (under tree canopy and between tree rows) and in a farmland without tree plantation for determination soil carbon storage in South Biarjomand region, Semnan province, Iran. Soil samples were taken through systematic-random method from two depths (0­-­25 and 25­-­50 cm) in three different places including under tree canopy, between trees and control area. Relationship between some physical and chemical properties of soil and its organic carbon content was also studied. Results showed that carbon storage (sequestration) under tree canopy was 31 ton.ha-1 higher than that in between tree rows (42 ton.ha-1). Also, total carbon storage in between tree rows was significantly higher than that in the control (7.4 ton.ha-1). Besides, carbon sequestration was higher in the first soil surface layer (0­­-­25 cm) in under tree canopy and between tree rows. Stepwise regression analysis also showed that pH was the most effective factor in carbon sequestration and soil nitrogen and sand were placed in the second class with 13.4 and 5.6 % lmpact, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • agroforestry system
  • Carbon sequestration
  • Soil properties

Allison LE (1975) Organic carbon. In: Black CA, Evans DD, White JL, Ensminger LE, Clark FE (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1367 pp.

Amundson R (2001) The carbon budget in soils. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 29: 535–562.

Baldock JA, Oades JM (1992) Aspects of the chemical structure of soil organic materials as revealed by solid- state. C NMR spectroscopy. Biogeochemistry 16: 1-42.

Banfield GE, Bhatti JS, Jiang H, Apps MJ, Karjalainen T (2002) Variability in regional scale estimates of carbon stocks in boreal forest ecosystems: results from westcentral Alberta. Forest Ecological Managmant 169: 15–27.

Barnes BV, Zak DR, Denton SR, Spurr SH (1998) Forest ecology.4th edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, 56 pp.

Bauer A, Cole CV, Black AL (1987) Soil property comparisons in virgin grasslands between grazed and nongrazed management systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51: 176–182.

Birdsey RA (1992) Carbon storage and accumulation in United States forest ecosystems. Washington DC: USDA Forest Service. 12 pp.

Blake GR, Hartge KH (1986) Bulk density. In: Klute A (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis. Part I. Physical and mineralogical methods. Soil Science Society of America Pub. 9(1): 363-376.

Chandler RF (1939) Cation exchange properties of certain forest soils in the Adirondack section. Journal of Agricultural Research 59: 491–505.

Coomes DA, Allen BB, Scott NA, Goulding C, Beets P (2000) Designing system to monitor the carbon stock. Forest Ecology and Management  6: 245-259.

Davidson EA, Ackerman IL (1993) Changes in soil carbon inventories following cultivation of previously untilled soils. Biogeochemistry 20: 161-193.

Finer L (1996) Variations in the amount and quality of litterfal in a Pinus sylvestris L. stand growing on a bog. Forest Ecology and management 80: 1-11.

Hamburg SP, Harris N, Jaeger J, Karl TR, McFarland  M, Mitchell JFB, Oppenheimer M, Santer S, Schneider S, Trenberth  K E, Wigley TML (1997) Common questions about climate change. United Nation Environment Program, World Meteorology Organization. 85 pp.

Hernandez R, Koohafkan P, Antoine J (2004) Assessing carbon stocks and modeling winwin scenarios of carbon sequestration through land-use change. FAO, Rome, 166 pp.

Hu YL, Zeng DH, Fan ZP, Chen GS, Zhao Q Pepper D (2008) Changes in ecosystem carbon stocks following grassland afforestation of semiarid sandy soil in the southeastern Keerqin sandy lands of China. Journal of Arid Environments 72: 2193 –2200.

Losi CJ, Siccama TG, Juan RC, Morales E (2003) Analysis of alternative methods for estimating carbon stock in young tropical plantations. Forest Ecology and Management 184: 355–368.

Mahmoud Taleghani AL., Zahedi Amiri GHA, Adeli E, Sagheb Talebi K (1386) Estimating soil carbon sequestration in managed forests. Journal of Forest and Poplar Research 15(3): 252-241.

Maranona T, Ajbiloua R, Ojedab F, Arroyob J (1999) Biodiversity of woody species in oak woodlands of southern Spain and northern Morocco. Forest Ecology and Management 115: 147-159.

McDicken KG (1997) A guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects. Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Forest Carbon Monitoring Program. 91 pp.

New Comb K (1999) Farming system carbon sequestration, sustainable intensive and management and trade in certified emission reductions. Proceeding of the World Bank Round Table, June 15 and 16 1999, 24 pp.

Paul KI, Polglase PJ, Nyakuengama JG, Khanna PK (2002) Change in soil carbon following afforestation. Forest Ecology and Management 168: 241-257.

Powers JS, Schlesinger WH, (2002) Relationships among soil carbon distributions and biophysical factors at nested spatial scales in rainforests of northeastern Costa Rica. Geoderma 109: 165–190.

Pussinen A, Karjalainen T, Mäkipää R, Valsta L, Kellomäki S (2002) Forest carbon sequestration and harvest in scots pine stand under different climate and nitrogen deposition scenarios. Forest Ecology and management 158 (1-3): 103-115.

Schlesinger WH (1999) Soil organic matter as a source of atmospheric CO2. Department of Botany. North Carolina, USA. pp: 111-125.

Shakiba  A (2000) Potential effect of global climate change on carbon sequestration in soils. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Leeds. School of Geography. 130 pp.

Singh G, Bala N, Chaudhuri KK, Meena RL (2003) Carbon sequestration potential of common access resources in arid and semi-arid regions of northwestern India. Indian Forester 129: 859-864.

Singh G, Singh NT (1993) Mesquite for revegetation of salt lands. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. Bulletin No. 18: 20-26.

Vramsh S, Hosseini SM, Abdi NA (1388) Comparison of broad-leaved and coniferous species carbon sequestration in urban forests. M.Sc. Thesis, College of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modarres University, Iran. (In Persian With English Abstract).

Wilcox CS, Dominguez J, Parmelee RW, Mc Cartney DA (2002) Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in Lumbricus territories. L. middens in four arable, a pasture, and a forest ecosystem. Biology and Fertility of Soil 36: 26–34.

Zahedi Gh (1998) Relation between vegetation and soil characteristics in a mixed hard wood stand. Academic Press, Ghent University (Belgium). 319 pp.

Zarrin Kafsh M (1998) Fundamentals of soil science and the environment associated with the plant. Technology Center, Islamic Azad University Press, 809 pp. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Zerva A, Mencuccini M, Smith K (2004) Effect of afforestation and forest management on soil carbon dynamic and trace gas emission in a Stika spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr.) forest. Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Science. Edinburgh. 271 pp.