مطالعه اثر روش‌های مختلف آبیاری و کشت بر راندمان مصرف آب و برخی خصوصیات عملکرد در سه رقم لوبیا چیتی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد میانه، ایران

2 عضو هیأت علمی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد ابهر. ایران.

3 کارشناس مدیریت جهاد کشاورزی شهرستان خرمدره.

چکیده

    طی تحقیقی در سال‍های 1390 و 1391، اثر دو روش ‌آبیاری به همراه دو روش کشت بر عملکرد و راندمان مصرف آب در سه رقم لوبیا چیتی در استان زنجان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. روش‍های آبیاری شامل آبیاری سحطی و آبیاری قطره‍ای با استفاده از لوله‍های T-Tape، روش‍های کشت شامل کشت کرتی و کشت جوی پشته‌ای و ارقام نیز شامل سه رقم لوبیا چیتی تلاش، خمین و COS16 بودند. طرح به صورت کرت‌های دو بارخرد شده در پایه طرح بلوک‍های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار به اجرا در آمد. بر اساس نتایج  بدست آمده، استفاده از آبیاری قطره‏ای میانگین عملکرد دانه را 28 درصد نسبت به روش آبیاری سطحی افزایش داد. ارقام خمین و COS16 به ترتیب 36% و 32% نسبت به رقم تلاش افزایش عملکرد نشان دادند. در مجموع رقم COS16 به دلیل بالا بودن تعداد دانه در بوته و رقم خمین به لحاظ بیشتر بودن وزن صد دانه از عملکرد بهتری برخوردار بودند. رقم COS16 به دلیل داشتن فرم رویشی ایستاده، نسبت به آبیاری قطره‎ای و روش کشت فارویی، عکس‌العمل بهتری نشان داد. بیش‌ترین عملکرد دانه به میزان 8/3329، 1/3020 و 4/3010 کیلوگرم به ترتیب از تیمارهای خمین با آبیاری قطره‌ای و کشت کرتی، رقم خمین با آبیاری قطره‌ای و کشت فارویی و رقم COS16 با آبیاری قطره‌ای و کشت فارویی به دست آمد. در روش آبیاری قطره‌ای ، مقدار آب کمتری به میزان 32% و عملکرد دانه بیشتری حدود 28% حاصل شد. تمامی ارقام در شرایط آبیاری قطره‌ای افزایش عملکرد معنی‌داری را نشان دادند، اما عکس‌العمل ارقام نسبت به روش کاشت یکسان نبود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different irrigation and planting methods on water use effeciency and some seed yield characteristics in three pinto common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Mehrpouyan 1
  • Manoucheher Farboodi 1
  • Jalil Ajali 1
  • Feraydoon Davoodi 2
  • Asghar Jafari 3
1 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh, Iran.
2 Faculty Member, Department of Irrigation, Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, Iran.
3 Member of Jihad-e-Keshavarzi Organization, Khorramdarreh, Iran.
چکیده [English]

  In order to study the effect of surface and local irrigation (Tape) methods on yield and water use efficiency of three common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in different planting patterns, a split split plot experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Khoramdareh region, Iran in 2011 and 2012. Khomain, Talash and COS16 cultivars were planted in sub sub­-­plots, furrow and without furrow were placed in sub­-­plots and surface and local irrigation (Tape) methods were considered as levels of the main factor. Results showed that tape irrigation increased seed yield up to 28% in comparison to the surface irrigation in pinto common bean cultivation. Khomain and COS16 produced 36% and 32% more yield than Talash cultivar, respectively. It was duo to higher seed number per plant in COS16 and higher 100 seed weight of Khomain cultivar. COS16 showed a better response to local irrigation and furrow planting pattern, because it has type I (erect type) growth form. The response of cultivars to irrigation methods and planting patterns was different, so that the highest seed yield was obtained from Khomain cultivar with tape irrigation and without furrow (3329.8 kg/ha), Khomain cultivar with tape irrigation and furrow (3020 kg/ha) and COS16 cultivar with tape irrigation and furrow (3010.4 kg/ha). The highest value for water use efficiency (1.12 kg/m3) was obtained by local irrigation (Tape). In tape irrigation method, volume of used water was 32% lesser than the surface irrigation and seed yield was increased more than 28%. All cultivars produced higher yield in tape irrigation method, but they showed different responses to the planting pattern.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tape irrigation
  • furrow cultivation
  • Seed yield
  • Pinto Bean
  • water use efficiency
Alizadeh A (2004) Plant, soil and water relation. Jiehad-e-Daneshgahi Press, Mashhad University, Iran. 55 pp. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Anonymous (2010) Agricultural statistics. Agricultural Support Service Company. Statistics and Information Technology Office. Vol. 1 Agronomy statistics. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Iran. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Akavan S, Mossavi F, Mostafazadeh B, Ghadami Firoozabadi A (2007) Effect of tape irrigation and furrow irrigating on yield and water use efficiency in potato. Agriculture and Natural Recourse Research Center of Isfahan. Water and Soil Science 41: 16- 24. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Ayars JE, Schoneman RA, Dale F, Meso B, Shouse P (2001) Managing subsurface drip irrigation in the presence of shallow ground water. Agricultural Water Management 47(3): 243-264.

Awari HW, Hiwase SS (1994) Effect of irrigation systems on growth and yield of potato. Annals of Plant Physiology 8(2): 185-187.

Baghani J (2008) Effect of different irrigation methods on yield and water use efficiency of tomato. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage (4): 32-46.

 Bayzayii A (1999) Yield comparison of different common bean cultivars. Final Report, Markazi Province Agricultural Research Center, 61 pp.    

Cassel F, Sharmasarkar FC, Miller SD (2001) Assessment of drip and flood irrigation on water and fertilizer use Sufficiency for sugar beets. Agricultural Water Management46: 24-251.

Ghadami Firoozabadi A, Nosrati AE, Zareah Abyaneh H (2012) Effect of two irrigation methods on yield and water use efficiency of garlic in Hamadan region. Journal of Pajohesh va Sazandagi. Agronomy issue. No. 94, spring 2012. p: 60-67.

Ghaemi A, Hossein Abadi Z, Sepah Khahe A (2008) The effect of T-tape irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of sugar beet in comparison to conventional irrigation methods. Journal of Science and Technology 22(2): 84-95.

Galger N, Bicson L (1998) Relation between density and yield components in bean plants. Crop Science 59: 214-224.

Gupta JP, Singh SD (1983) Hydrothermal environment of soil, and vegetable production with drip and furrow irrigations. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 53(2): 138-142.

Hodges ME, JF Stone, Garton JE, Weeks DL (1989) Variance of water advance in wide spaced furrow irrigation. Agricultural Water Management 16: 5-13.

Horst MG, Shamutalov SS, Perira LS, Goncalves JM (2005) Field assessment of the water saving potential with furrow irrigation in Fergana, Aral Sea basin. Agricultural Water Management 77: 210-231.

Karimi A, Homaee M, Moezardalan M, Liyaghat AM, Raesi F (2006) Effect of fertigation on yield and water use efficiency of corn in a tape irrigation system. Journal of Agricultural Science, Islamic Azad University, (3): 561-575.

Liebman M, Corson S, Rowe RJ, Halteman WA (1995) Dry bean response to nitrogen fertilizer in two tillage and residue management systems. Agronomy Journal  87: 538-546.

Mehraj KN, Berick MA, Pearson CH, Ogg JB (1996) Effect of bed width, planting arrangement, and plant population on seed yield of pinto bean cultivars with different growth habits. Journal of Production Agriculture 9: 79- 82.

Mehrpouyan M, Faramarzi A, Siyami K, Jaefari A (2010) Effect of different planting methods on two cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in three planting dates. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 1(1): 2010: 9-17.

Mintesinto B, Verplancke H, Van Ranst E (2002) Assessment and optimization of traditional irrigation of Vertisols in northern Ethiopia: a case study at Gumselasa Microdam using maize as an indicator crop. Ph.D. Thesis. Ghent University, Belgium.

Mofoke ALE, Adewumi JK, Babatunde FE, Mudiare OJ, Ramalan AA (2006) Yield of tomato grown under continuous-flow drip irrigation in Bauchi state of Nigeria. Agricultural Water Management 84(1):166-172.

Musick JT, Dusck DA (1982) Skip-row planting and irrigation of graded furrows. Translated. American Society of Agricultural Engineering 25: 82–87.

Shahin Rokhsar P, Assadi ME (2012) Irrigation systems management on soybean under water stress. Water and Soil Science Dpartment, Isfahan University, Iran. Journal of Science and Technology 61: 97-107.

Shrivastava PK, Parikh MM, Sawani NG, Raman S (1994) Effect of drip irrigation and mulching on tomato yield. Agricultural Water Management 25(2): 179-184.

Stone JF, Nofziger DL (1993) Water use and yields of cotton grown under wide-spaced furrow irrigation. Agricultural Water Management 24: 27-38.

Van Schoonhoven A, Voysest O (1991) Common beans research for crop improvement. International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Colombia. 4: 55-102.