بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد و محتوی یون ها درگیاه جو بدون پوشینه (Hordeum sativum L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته زراعت واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، عضو هیات علمی واحد اقلید

2 عضو هیات علمی موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال کرج

چکیده

    در بیشتر مناطق ایران رشد و عملکرد غلات به دلیل خشکی کاهش پیدا می کند.  یکی از گیاهان مناسب برای چنین شرایطی گیاه جو معمولی و بدون پوشینه است. چهار ژنوتیپ جو بدون پوشینه (UH3، U46M، EHM81-12 و CM67) در ایستگاه تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اقلید به مدت دو سال (1384 و 1383) در دو آزمایش جداگانه برای بررسی میزان تحمل آن ها به خشکی مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند در آزمایش تنش خشکی چهار تیمار  شامل آبیاری پس از رسیدن پتانسیل آب خاک به bar5/0-(شاهد)، آبیاری پس پتانسیل 5/1- بار ، 3- و 5- بار به کار برده شدند . تیمارهای آزمایش به صورت اسپلیت پلات با طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اعمال شدند. تیمارهای خشکی در کرت های اصلی و ارقام در کرت های فرعی قرار گرفتند . فاکتورهای مورد اندازه گیری عبارت بودند از عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و محتوی یونی ساقه. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که تعداد  دانه و سنبله درگیاه  کاهش معنی داری در شرایط تنش داشتند و وزن دانه و حساسیت کمتری داشت. عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک نیز در شرایط تنش کاهش نشان دادند و دربین ژنوتیپ ها رقم UH3 کمترین و رقم GM67 بیشترین مقدار عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک را نشان دادند. تفاوت مقدار عملکرد بیولوژیک به تعداد پنجه و سنبله در گیاه و کاهش سطح برگ و ارتفاع مرتبط بود. کاهش عملکرد دانه به تعداد سنبله کمتر در گیاه و تعداد دانه در سنبله کمتر ربط داشت. پروتئین دانه در شرایط تنش خشکی افزایش یافت. تنش، میزان سدیم و کلر برگ را افزایش داد ولی مقدار NO3، NH4، Ca،P ،K  وMg  کاهش  یافت. درکل رقمUH3  کمترین و رقم CM67 بیشترین مقدار عملکرد  را داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of drought and salt stresses on yield, yield components, and ion content, of hull-less barley (Hordeum sativum L.)*

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Reza Bagheri 1
  • Hossein Heidari Sharif Abad 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Science and Research Branch, and Scientific Board of Islamic Azad University, Eqlid Branch
2 Scientific Board Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute
چکیده [English]

Drought cause yield loses in cereals in most regions Iran. Barley and hull-less barley are the most suitable cereal crops for such situation. Four hull-less barley genotypes (UH3, U46M, EHM81-12 and CM67) were grown in research station of Eqlid azad university in two different experiments for drought stress study in, 2005- 2006 .In drought based study, four irrigation methods including irrigating after the reaching soil water potential to -0.5, bar (control), 1.5 bar, -3 and -5 bar were used.The experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in which the drought treatments were arranged in main plots and genotypes in subplots.The determined parameters were yield, it's components and ion content in shoots.The results revealed that the number of spike and grain per plot were reduced significantly by stress and grain weight was less sensitive to that.The biological and grain yields were decreased by stress. Among the genotypes, UH3 and CM67 had the lowest and highest grain and biological yield, respectively. The biological yield differences was related to low plant height, leaves and area tillers and the grain yield differences were caused by reduction in ear per plant and grain per ear.The grain protein content was  influenced by drought stress. Drought stress decreased ion content except Na and Cl. The LAR value was first decreased by stress treatments but showed an increase at high stress levels. In general, UH3 genotype showed lowest yield and yield components, stress tolerance index, photosynthesis, growth and ion content and CM67 was vise versa.

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