عنوان مقاله [English]
Because of abundance and importance of Convolvulus arvensis in wheat fields, an experiment was conducted as factorial with three replicates in 2oo7. Treatments were extract of Convolvulus arvensis (factor A) at five levels including leaf, shoot, root, and flower extracts and a control, and different concentrations of extracts (factor B) at 4 levels of 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20. Results of analysis of variance showed significant effect of main factors and interactions on all attributes. All weed extracts decreased germination components but root extrac showed highest prohibition. Extracts of root and other parts of weed at 1:5 concetration inhibited germination at all. Leaf extract decreased radicle and plumole length, seedling dry weight, germination percentage and velocity as 99.41, 96.98, 100, 98.64, and 62.74%, respectively. Results of green house studies showed significant effect of some main factors and interactions on traits. İn low concentration, leaf extract and in high concentration, root extract showed higher effect on studied attributes. İncreasing extract concentration from 1:20 to 1:5, significantly decreased all attributes. Decreasing rate of plant height, spike length, leaf number, pedancle length, seed number, TKW, and yield in 1:5 concentration compared to control were 56.99, 50.44, 70,86, 62.4, 76.17, 94.66, and 99.01%, respectively. It was concluded that Convolvulus arvensis significantly decreased germination, growth and yield of wheat duo to producing allelopatic chemical materials
1. Adair, E. C. 1999. Allelopathic inhibition of the nitrogen cycle by monoterpens. Colorado State University, Fort collins. Colorado.
2. Alam, S. M., S. A. Ala, A. R. Azmi, M. A. Khan and R. Ansari. 2001a. Allelopathy and it's role in agriculture. Journal of Biological Sciences 1(5):308-315.
3. Alam, S. M., S. A. Ansari., and M. A. Khan. 2001b. Influence of leaf extract of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) on the germination and Seedling growth of wheat. Wheat information Service 92:17-19.
4. An, M., J. Pratly and T. Haig. 2006. Allelopathy: from concept to reality. 1. Environment and analytical laboratories, and 2 Farrer Centre for Conservation Farming. Charles Sturf University. Wagga, NSW 2650.
5. Bogatek, R., A. Gniazdowka, J. Stepien and E. Kupidlowska. 2005. Sunflower allelochemicals mode of action in germinating mustard seeds. Alelopathy Congress.
6. Bond, W. and R. Turner. 2001. Element stewardship abstract for Convulvulus arvensis L. 4245 North Fairfax Drive, Arlington, Virginia. 22203-1606 (703) 841-5300.
7. Ciarka, D., H. Gawronska, M. Malecka and S. W. Gawronski. 2003. Genotypical diffrences in allelopathic potential of amaranthus spp. Department of Pomology and Basic Natural Sciences in Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Warsaw Agricultural University, Nowoursynowska. 166, 02- 787 Warsaw, Poland.
8. Clarka, D. 2006. The role of allelopathy in agricultural ecosystems. Department of Pomology and Basic Natural Sciences in Horticulture, Warsaw Agricultural University.
9. Colpas, F. T., E. O. Ohno, J. D. Rodrigues and S. Pass. 2003. Effects of some phenolic compounds on soybean seed germination and on seed- borne fungi. Brazilian Arch. Biology and Technology 46(2).
10. Costea, M., S. E. Weaver and F. J. Tardif. 2003. The biology of Canadian weeds. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 84:631-668.
11. De Neergard, A., and J. Porter. 2000. Allelopathy. Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science. http://www.kursus.kvl.dk/shares/ea/ 03Projects/32gamle/ _Project%20files/ aleopathy.
12. Dos Santos, C. C., D. F. De Oliviera, L. W. R. Alves and D. A. S. Furtado. 2003. Effect of organic extracts associated with surfactant tween 80 on seed germination. Cienc, Agrotec, Lavras. 28 (2): 296-299.
13. El-Khatib, A., A. A. K. Hegazy and H. K. Gala. 2004. Does allelopathy have a role in the ecology of Chenopodium murale?. Annuals of Botany Fennici 41:37-45.
14. El-Khawas, S. A., and M. M. Shehala. 2005. The allelopathic potentialities of Acacia nilotica and Eucalyptus prostrate on monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants. Biotechnology 4(1):23-34.
15. Escudero, A., M. J. Albert, J. M. Pita and F. P. Garcia. 2000. Inhibitory effects of Artemisia herba alba on the germination of the gypsophyte Helianthemum squamatum. Plant Ecology 148:71-80.
16. Gawroski, S. W. 2003. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis L. Allelopatics on germination and seedling vigor of winter wheat. Acta Physiology Plantarum 27(4): 21-27.
17. Kadiolu, I. and Y. Yanar. 2004. Alelopathic effect of plant extracts against seed germination of some weeds. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 3(4):472-475.
18. Kefeli, V. I., M. V. Kaleviteh and B. Borsari. 2003. Phenolic cycle in plants and environment. Journal of Cell and Molecular Biology 2:13-18.
19. Kohli, R. K., H. P. Singh and D. R. Batish. 2001. Allelopathy in agroecosystem. Journal of Crop Production. Volume 4. ISSUE 2.
20. Kruse, M., M. Strandberg and B. Strandberg. 2000. Ecological effect of allelopathic plants- a review. NERI Technical Report, No. 315
21. Labrada, R. 1997. Problems related to the development of weed management in the developing world. FAO, Rome.
22. Lyons, K. E. 2007. Convolvulus arvensis L. Http://hncweeds.Ucdavus/esadocs /convarae .htm.
23. Narwal, S. S., R. Palaniraj and S. C. Sati. 2005. Role of allelopathy in crop production. Herbologia. Vol. 6, No. 2.
24. Orcutt, D. M., and E. T. Nilsen. 2000. The physiology of plant's under stress. New yourk. John Wiley and Sons, INC.
25. Preston, C. A., H. Betts and I. T. Baldwin. 2002.Methyl jasmonate as an allelopathic agent: sagerbrush inhibits germination of a neighbouring tobacco. Nicotiana Attenata. Chemical Ecology. Vol 28. No 11.
26. Pushak, S., D. Peterson and P. W. Stahlman .1999. Field bindweed control in field crops. Florida State University.
27. Singh, H. P., D. R. Batish and R. K. Kohi. 2006. Handbook of sustainable weed management. Food Products Press.
28. Strom , C. 2006. Agriculture history. ISSN:0002-1482, Vol 80.
29. Wuweaver, S. and W. R. Riley. 2004. Field bindweed. OMAFRA Factsheet order.No:83-002.
30. Yang, C. M., C. N. Lee and C. H. Chou. 2002. Effect of three allelopathic phenolics on chlorphyll accumulation of rice (oryza setiva) seedling: I. Inhibition of Supply Orientation. Institute of Botany. Academic Sinica. Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan.