عنوان مقاله [English]
Study of rhizosphere is important in sustainable crop production. Mycorrhizal fungus are one of the most important microorganisms in rhizosphere, that has key function in sustainability of agroecosystems through symbiosis with plants root. In order to investigation the effect of different strains of mycorrhizae on alfalfa root traits, a pot experiment with five treatments including Glomus mosseae, G. etanicatum, G. intraradices, combination of
G. mosseae, Gigaspora hartigaand G. fasciculatum strains and a control at four replications was conducted in 2006. The roots were washed with tap water after harvesting of shoots. Root traits such as root dry matter, root length, mycorrhizal colonization based on grid line intersect method, total dry weight of mycorrhizal root and root length to root dry weight ratio were measured. Results of analysis of variance indicated that different strains had significant effect on colonization index, so that G. mosseae had the most amount of colonization. Different strains had significant differences in concentration of P, Zn and K in plants and
G. mosseae had more uptake and translocation ability of P, Zn and K than others.
10.Klironomos, J. N. 2003. Variation in plant response to native and exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Ecology 84: 2292–2301.
11.Koide, R. T. 1991. Nutrient supply, nutrient demand and plant response to mycorrhizal infection. New Phytologist 117:365-386.
12.Ledig, F. T., Drew, A. P., and Clark, J. G. 1976. Maintenance and constructive respiration, photosynthesis, and net assimilation rate in seedlings of pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.). Annual Botany 4:289-300.
13.Liu, A., Hamel, C., Elmi, A., Costa, C., Ma, B., and Smith, D. L. 2002. Concentrations of K, Ca and Mg in maize colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 82(3): 271- 278.
14.Mohammad, M. J., Pan, W. L., and Kennedy, A. C. 1991. Wheat responses to vesicular and arbusculsr mycorrhizal fungi inoculation of soil from eroded to posequence. Journal of American Society of Soil Science 59: 1086.
15.Mosse, B. 1973. Plant growth responses to vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. IV. In soil given additional phosphate. New Phytologist 72:127-136.
16.Norris, J. R., Read, D. J., and Varma, A. K. 1994. Thechniques for mycorrhizal research methods in microbiology. Academic Press, Limited. London.
17.Rousseau, J. V. D., and Reid, C. P. P. 1991. Effects of phosphorus fertilization and mycorrhizal development on phosphorus nutrition and carbon balance of loblolly pine. New Phytologist 117:319-326.
18.SAS Statistical Analysis Systems. 2002. The SAS System for Windows, Version 6.12. Statistical Analysis System Institute.
19.Smith, S. F. and Read, D. J. 1997. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. 2nd ed. Academic Press., Inc. U.S.A.
20.Swift, C. E. 2004. Mycorrhiza and soil phosphorus levels. Area Extension Agent. http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/TRA/PLANTS/mycorrhiza.
21.Tarafdar, J. C., and Marschner, H. 1994. Pytase activity in the rhizosphere on crops, trees and grsses under arid environment. Plant Soil 173:97.
22.Tennant, D. 1975. A test of a modified line intersects method estimating root length. Journal of Ecology 63: 995-1001.