اثر محلول‌پاشی عناصر کم مصرف منگنز، روی و بور در مراحل مختلف رشدی بر خصوصیات کمّی ارقام گندم دیم

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه، میانه، ایران.

2 عضو هیأت علمی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه، میانه، ایران.

3 عضو هیأت علمی، مؤسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور، مراغه، ایران.

چکیده

     به منظور مطالعه اثرات محلول‌پاشی عناصر کم‌ مصرف منگنز، روی و بور بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم دیم، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی به صورت کرت‌های دو بار خرد شده با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم (مراغه) به مدت یک سال زراعی (1388-1387) اجرا شد. ارقام آذر2 و هُما در کرت­های اصلی، زمان محلول‌پاشی در سه مرحله پنجه‌زنی (GS32)، ساقه رفتن (GS37) و ظهور برگ پرچم (GS64) در کرت‌های فرعی و محلول‌پاشی عناصر کم‌مصرف (شاهد، آب خالص، سولفات منگنز به غلظت هفت در هزار، سولفات روی به غلظت پنج در هزار و اسید بوریک به غلظت سه در هزار) در کرت‌های فرعی در فرعی قرار گرفت. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر محلول‌پاشی عناصر کم‌مصرف بر عملکرد دانه، تعداد سنبله در واحد سطح و وزن خشک برگ پرچم، شاخص برداشت، وزن تر برگ پرچم و وزن آب بافت معنی‌دار بود. نتایج مقایسه میانگین عملکرد دانه نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار این صفت به میزان 1418 کیلوگرم در هکتار از تیمار اسید بوریک سه در هزار و کمترین آن به میزان 1285 کیلوگرم در هکتار از آب خالص به دست آمد. مطابق این نتایج محلول‌پاشی سولفات منگنز هفت در هزار و سولفات روی پنج در هزار اثر معنی­داری در افزایش عملکرد دانه گندم دیم نداشت. بیشترین تعداد سنبله در واحد سطح از محلول‌پاشی سولفات منگنز هفت در هزار و بیشترین میزان وزن‎تر و خشک برگ پرچم از اسد بوریک سه در هزار حاصل گردید. مناسب‌ترین مرحله برای محلول‌پاشی، مرحله پنجه‌زنی بود که بیشترین عملکرد دانه (1630 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بدست آمد. رقم آذر2، از لحاظ عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه به‎ترتیب به میزان 32 درصد (1650 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و 36 درصد (648 کیلوگرم در هکتار) برتر از رقم‎ هما بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of manganese, zinc and boron micronutrients foliar application at different growth stages on quantitative characteristics of rainfed wheat cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Ahmadi 1
  • Naser Mohebalipour 2
  • Vali Feizi-Asl 3
  • Iraj Eskandari 3
1 MSc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh, Iran.
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh, Iran.
3 Faculty Member of Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Maragheh, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effects of foliar application of manganese, zinc and boron on grain quality and quantity characteristics of dryland wheat, a split-split plot experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Experiment was carried out in Dryland Agricultural Research Station in Maragheh region, northwest Iran during 2008-2009. Wheat cultivars (Azar2 and Homa) were planted in main plots. Foliar application time in three stages of tillering (GS32), stem elongation (GS37) and flag leaf emerging (GS64) and foliar application of micronutrients (control, pure water, 35g.ha-1 manganese sulfate, 25 g.ha-1 zinc sulfate and 15 g.ha-1 boric acid) were also allocated to subplots and sub-subplots, respectively.  Results showed that foliar application of microelements significantly affected grain yield, spike number per area unit, dry weight and fresh weight of flag leaf and harvest index. According to the results, application of 35 g.ha-1 manganese sulfate and 25 g.ha-1 zinc sulfates had non significant effect on grain yield. Application of 15 g.ha-1 boric acid resulted in the highest yield (1418 kg. ha-1), dry weight and fresh weight of flag leaf. The highest number of spikes per m2 was observed with application of 35 g.ha-1 manganese sulfate. According to these results, tillering stage (GS32) was the best stage for foliar application of micronutrients that produced the highest yield (1630 g.ha-1). Azar2 was better cultivar and produced 32 and 36 percent higer biological and grain yield in comparison to Homa cultivar, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • reinfed wheat
  • Foliar application
  • Microelement
  • Manganese sulfate
  • zinc sulfate
  • boric acid
  • quantitative characteristics

Ahangari A (2007) Evaluation of effective traits on drought resistance in wheat. Journal of Agricultural and Naturaal Resources Engineering Organization 5(18): 42-46. [In Persian with English Abstract].   

Arif M, AsifShehzad M, Bashir F, Tasneem M, Yasin G, Iqbal M (2012) Boron, zinc and microtone effects on growth, chlorophyll contents and yield attributes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. African Journal of Biotechnology 11(48): 10851-10858.

Berglund DR (2002). Soybean production field guide for north Dakota and northwestern Minnesota. Published in cooperative and with support from the North Dakota Soybean Council, 136p. Available online at: http://library.ndsu.edu/tools/dspace/load/?file=/repository/bitstream/ha

Bozoglu H, Ozcelik H, Mut Z, Pesken E (2007) Response of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) to zink and molybdenum fertilization. Bangladesh Journal of Botany 36(2): 145-149.

Datir RB, Apparao BJ, Laware SL (2012) Application of amino acid chelated micronutrients for enhancing growth and productivity in chili (Capsicum annum L.). Plant Sciences Feed 2(7): 100-105.

El-Majid AA, Knany RE, El-Fotoh HGA (2000) Effect of foliar application of some micronutrients on wheat   yield and quality. Annal Agricaltural Science 1: 301-313.

Fageria NK (1992) Maximizing crop yields. Marcel Dekker, New York. 274 pp.

Feizi-Asl V, Valizadeh G (2003) Effect of time and nitrogen on yield of raifed wheat. Jornal of Soil and Water 17(1): 29-38. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Ghaderi J, Malakoti MJ (1999) Effect of method and time of application of manganese sulfate and microelements on yield and quality of wheat. Journal of Soil and Water 12(6): 45-52.

Grotz N, Guerinot ML (2006) Molecular aspects of Cu, Fe and Zn homestasis in plants. Biochimistry and Biophys Acta 1763(7): 595-608.

Hotz C, Brown KH (2004) Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control. Food and Nutrient Bulletin 25: 94-204.

Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (1999) Biogeochemistry of trace elements, Second Edition, Wyd. Nauk. PWN, Warsaw, Poland.

Kohnaward P, Jalilian J, Pirzad A (2012) Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on yield and yield components of safflower under conventional and ecological cropping systems. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 3(7): 1460-1469.

Malakoti MJ, Geibi MN (2000) Determing critical limit of effective nutritent elements in soil, plant and fruit (seconded). Nashre Amozesh Keshavarzi. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Maralian H (2009) Effect of foliar application of Zn and Fe on wheat yield and quality. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(24): 6795-6798.

Mosavi SR, Galavi M, Ahmadvand M (2007) Effect of zinc and manganese foliar application on yield, quality and enrichment on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Asian Journal of Plant Science 6(8): 1256-1260.

Reynolds MP, Ortiz-Monasterio JI, McNab A (2001) Application of physiology in wheat breeding. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), 240 pp.

Sadana US and Nayyar VK (1991) Response of wheat on manganese deficient soils to the methods and rates of manganese sulphate application. Fertilizer News 36: 55-70.

Seifi-Nadergholi M, Yarnia M, Rahimzade Khoei F (2011) Effect of zinc and manganese and their application method on yield and yield components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV. Khomein). Middle-East Journal of Science Resrarch 8(5): 859-865.

Seilsepour M (2007) The study of Fe and Zn effects on quantitative and qualitative parameters of winter wheat and determination of critical levels of these elements in Varamin plain soils. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 76: 123-133. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Shahrokhi N, Khourgami A, Nasrollahi H, Shirani-Rad AH (2012) Effect of iron sulfate spraying on yield and some qualitative characteristics in three wheat cultivars. Annals of Biological Research 3(11): 5205-5210.

Swarup A, Sharma DP (1993) Influence of top dressed nitrogen in alleviating adverse effects of flooding on growth and yield of wheat in a sodic soil. Field Crops Research 35: 93-100.

Weggler BR, Graham D, Melaugin MJ (2003) The influence of low rates of arid-dried on yield and phosphorus and zinc nutrition of wheat (Triticum durum L.) and barley (Hordeumvulgar L.). Australian Journal of Soil Research 41:293-308.

Welch RM, Graham RD (2004) Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective. Journal of Experimental Botany 55: 353-364.

Yassen A, Abou El-Nour EAA, Shedeed S (2010) Response of wheat to foliar spray with urea and micronutrients. Journal of American Science 6 (9): 14-22.

Yilmaz A, Ekiz H, Torun B, Gultekin I, Karanlik S, Bagci SA, Cakmak I (1997) Effect of different zinc application methods on grain yield and zinc concentration in wheat grown on zinc-deficient calcareous soils in Central Anatolia. Journal of Plant Nutrient 20 (4-5): 461–471.

Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Kanzal CF (1974) A decimal code for the growth stages in cereals. Weed Research 14: 415-421.