تغییر کاربری اراضی مرتعی به زمین های زراعی آبی و دیم و اثر آن بر ویژگی های مهم خاک در منطقه میانه

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد میانه، میانه، ایران

چکیده

    مطالعات کیفیت خاک برای شناسایی اثرات مدیریت­های متفاوت در عرصه­های کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی از جمله تخریب مراتع و جنگل­ها و یا تغییر کاربری آن­ها به زمین­های زراعی از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. این مطالعات در صورتی که منعکس­کننده اثرات مدیریت بر کیفیت خاک در کوتاه­مدت باشند، راه­حل مفیدی برای شناخت مدیریت­های پایدار در هر منطقه به­منظور جلوگیری از تخریب خاک، ایجاد و تثبیت تولید پایدار و حفظ محیط زیست می­باشند. تغییرات کاربری ارضی نقش مهمی در تغییر پدیده­های جهانی دارد و تغییر جنگل­ها و مراتع به اراضی کشاورزی امروزه به یکی از نگرانی­های قابل توجه در سطح دنیا در زمینه تخریب محیط­زیست و تغییر اقلیم جهانی تبدیل شده است. با توجه به گستردگی تغییرات کاربری اراضی در ایران، این پژوهش به منظور بررسی برخی خصوصیات خاک در کاربری­های مختلف اراضی منطقه میانه انجام شد. خصوصیاتی مانند بافت خاک، درصد کربن آلی خاک، واکنش خاک و آهک در سه کاربری مرتع، زراعت آبی و کشت دیم بررسی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که بافت خاک سطحی از کلاس لوم رس سیلتی در کاربری مرتع به کلاس سبک­تر لوم شنی و لوم سیلتی در کاربری زراعی تغییر پیدا کرده است. هم‎چنین درصد کربن آلی در کاربری مرتع بیشترین مقدار (2/1%) بود و در کاربری­های دیم (9/0%) و زراعی (5/0%) به‎ترتیب کاهش نشان داده است. واکنش خاک در لایه سطحی خاک در کاربری دیم کمترین مقدار (6/7) و در کاربری زراعی بیشترین مقدار (9/7) بود. بیشترین درصد آهک در خاک زراعی (22%) و کمترین مقدار آن در کاربری مرتع (8%) مشاهده شد. به‎طور کلی نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تغییر کاربری اراضی از مرتع به زراعت آبی و دیم باعث کاهش کیفیت خاک شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Land use change from pasture to irrigated and dry farming arable land and its effect on soil properties in Miyaneh region, Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Naser Nazari
Faculty Member of Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Soil quality assessment is necessary for identifying the effects of different management systems on agriculture and natural resources including rang and forest degradation. Such studies can be useful for identifying sustainable practices in each region with intention of preventing land degradation, providing sustainable crop production and environmental protection. Land use changes play an important role in global change phenomena. Nowadays changing forests and pastures to agricultural land use are a worldwide problem that results in environment degradation and global climate change. This study was conducted to determine some soil properties due to land use changing in Miyaneh region, northwest Iran. The studied properties were soil texture, soil organic carbon, soil pH and soil calcium carbonate in three land use types of pasture, dry farming and irrigated wheat. The results showed that soil texture in top soil changed from silt clay loam in pasture to sandy loam and silt loam in cultivated lands. The values for soil organic carbon were highest in pasture (1.2%) and decreased to 0.9% and 0.5% in dry farming and cultivated land use, respectively. pH values in dry farming soils (7.6) were lower than those of the cultivated soils (7.9). However, soil calcium carbonate percentage was the highest in cultivated (22%) and lowest in pasture (8%). In conclusion, results showed adverse effects of land use change on soil quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • land use
  • Soil quality
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Degradation
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