Babadoost M (1995) Occurrence of Fusarium species in seeds of wheats in Azarbayjan-e-Sharqi province and Ardabil, Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 31: 88-100.
Bottalico A, Perrone G (2002) Toxigenic Fusarium species and mycotoxins associated with head blight in small grain cereals in Europe. European Journal of Plant Pathology 198: 611–624.
Brown DW, McCormick SP, Alexander NJ, Proctor RH, Desjardins AE (2002) Inactivation of a cytochrome P-450 is a determinant of trichothecene diversity in Fusarium species. Fungal Genetic Biology 36:224–233.
Burgess LW, Summerell BA, Bullock S, Gott KP, Backhouse D (1994) Laboratory Manual for Fusarium Research. Third edition. University of Sydney/Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, Australia.
Burlakoti RR, Shaukat A, Secor GA, Neate SM, McMullen MP, and Adhikari TB (2008) Comparative mycotoxin profiles of Gibberella zeae populations from barley, wheat, potatoes, and sugar beets. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(21): 6513-6520
Carter JP, Rezanoor HN, Desjardins AE, Nicholson P (2000) Variation in Fusarium graminearum isolates from Nepal associated with their host of origin. Plant Pathology 49: 452-460.
Carter JP, Rezanoor HN, Holden D, Desjardins AE, Plattner RD, Nicholson P (2002) Variation in pathogenicity associated with the genetic diversity of Fusarium graminearum. European Journal of Plant Pathology 108: 573–583.
Chandler EA, Simpson DR, Thomsett MA, Nicholson P (2003) Development of PCR assays to Tri7 and Tri13 trichothecene biosynthetic genes, and characterisation of chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium cerealis. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 62: 355-367.
Chung WH, Ishii H, Nishimura K, Ohshima M, Iwama T, Yoshimatsu H (2008) Genetic analysis and PCR based identification of major Fusarium species causing head blight on wheat in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology 74: 364-374.
Desjardins AE, Jarosz AM, Platiner RD, Alexander NJ, Brown DW Jurgenson JE (2004) Patterns of Trichothecene production, genetic variability and virulence to wheat of Fusarium graminearum from smallholder farms in Nepal. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 52: 6341-6346.
Forootan A, Ershad D, Dalili A, Bamdadian T, Gerami GH (1993) Occurrence of head blight of wheat in Mazandaran. Proceeding of the 11th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Gilan University, Rasht.
Golzar H, (1993) Wheat head blight- etiology, infection and seed transmission. Iranian Journal of Plant pathology 25: 17-22.
Haratian M, Sharifnabi B, Alizadeh A, Safaie N (2006) Detection of genes involved in trichothecene production in Iranian isolates of Fusarium graminearum by PCR. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 42: 519-538.
Haratian M, Sharifnabi B, Alizadeh A, Safaie N (2008) PCR analysis of the Tri13 gene to determine the genetic potential of Fusarium graminearum isolates from Iran to produce Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol. Mycopathologia 166: 109-116.
Jennings P, Coates ME, Turner JA, Chandler EA, Nicholson P (2004) Determination of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol chemotypes of Fusarium culmorum isolates from England and Wales by PCR assay. Plant Pathology 53: 182– 190
Ji L, Cao K, Hu T, Wang S (2007) Determination of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum isolates from China by PCR assay. Journal of Phytopathology 155: 505-512.
Johanson DD, Wilson WW Diersen M (1995) Quality uncertainty and grain merchandising risk: Vomitoxin in spring wheat. Agric. Econ. Rep. No. 33. North Dakota State University, Fargo.
Langseth A, Bernhoft A, Rundberget T, Kosiak B, Gereis M (1999) Mycotoxin production and cytotoxicity of Fusarium strains isolated from Norwegian cereals. Mycopathologia 144: 103–13.
Lee T, Oh D, Kim H (2001) Identiﬁcation of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol-producing chemotypes of Gibberella zeae by using PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67:2966–2972.
Leslie JF, Summerell BA (2006) The fusarium laboratory manual. Ames: Blackwell Publishing, pp:176-179.
Li HP, Wu AB, Zhao CS, Scholten O, Loﬄer H, Liao YC (2005) Development of a generic PCR detection of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol-chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum. FEMS Microbiology Letter 243:505–511.
Llorens A, Hinojo1 MJ, Mateo R, Medina1 A, Valle-Algarra1 FM, Gonzalez-Jaen MT, Jimenez M (2006) Variability and characterization of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium spp. isolates by PCR-RFLP analysis of the IGS-rDNA region. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 89: 465–478
McMullen M, Jones R, Gallenberg D (1997) Scab of wheat and barley: a re-emerging disease of devastating impact. Plant Disease 81:1340–1348.
Miller JD, Greenhalgh R, Wang Y Lu M (1991) Trichothecene chemotypes of three Fusarium species, Mycologia 83: 121–130.
Nicholson P, Lees AK, Maurin N, Parry DW, Rezanoor HN (1996) Development of a PCR assay to identify and quantify Microdochium nivale var nivale and Microdochium nivale var. majus in wheat. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 48:257–271.
Nicholson P, Simpson DR, Weston G, Rezanoor HN, Lees AK, Parry DW, Joyce D (1998) Detection and quantification of Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum in cereals using PCR assays. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 53: 17– 37.
Nicholson P, Simpson DR, Wilson AH, Chandler E, Thomsett M (2004) Detection and differentiation of trichothecene and enniatin-producing Fusarium species on small-grain cereals. European Journal of Plant Pathology 110: 503-514.
O’Donnell K, Kistler HC, Tacke BK Casper HH (2000) Gene genealogies reveal global phylogeographic structure and reproductive isolation among lineages of Fusarium graminearum, the fungus causing wheat scab. Proceeding of National Academy of Science USA97: 7905–7910.
Parry DW, Jenkinson P, McLeod L (1995) Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small grains-a review. Plant Pathology 44: 207–238.
Parry DW, Nicholson P (1996) Development of a PCR assay to detect Fusarium poae in wheat. Plant Pathology 45:383–391.
Prodi A, Tonti S, Nipoti P, Pancaldi D, Pis A (2009) Identification of deoxynivalenol and Nivalenol producing chemotypes of F. graminearum isolates from durum wheat in a restricted area of northern Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 91(3): 727-731
Qu B, Li HP, Zhang JB, Huang T, Carter J, Liao YC, Nicholson P (2008) Comparison of genetic diversity and pathogenicity of Fusarium head blight pathogens from China and Europe by SSCP and seedling assays on wheat. Journal of Plant Pathology 57: 642-651
Reader U, Broda P (1985) Rapid preparation of DNA from filamentous fungi. Applied Microbiology, 90: 901-908.
Snijders CHA (1990) Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin contamination of wheat, a review. Netherland Journal of Plant Pathology 96: 187-198.
Turner AS, Lees AK, Rezanoor HN, Nicholson P (1998) Refinement of PCR detection of Fusarium avenaceum and evidence from DNA marker for phonetic relatedness to Fusarium tricinetum. Plant Pathology 47: 278-288.
Waalwijk C, Kastelein P, de Vries I, Kerenyi Z, Van der Lee T, Hesselink T, Kohl J, Kema G (2003) Major changes in Fusarium spp. in wheat in the Netherlands. European Journal of Plant Pathology 10: 743–754.
Wang YZ (1996) Epidemiology and management of wheat scab in China in: Fusarium head scab: Global status and future prospects. Pages: 97-105.
Ward TJ, Bielawski JP, Kistler HC, Sullivan E, O’Donnell K (2002) Ancestral polymorphism and adaptive evolution in the tri-chothecene mycotoxin gene cluster of phytopathogenic Fusarium. Proceeding of National Academy of Science, USA, 99: 9278–9283.
Windels CE (2000) Economic and social impacts of Fusarium head blight: changing farms and rural communities in the northern Great Plains. Phytopathology 90: 17–21.
Yao JB, Lu WZ (2000) Research advances in wheat breeding for scab resistance in China. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Science 16:242–248.
Yang L, van der Lee T, Yang X, Yu D, Waalwijk C. (2008) Fusarium populations on Chinese barley show a dramatic gradient in mycotoxin profiles. Phytopathology 98(6): 719-727.
Zamanizadeh HR, Khorsandi H (1995) Fusarium spp. And their mycotoxins in wheat of Mazandaran province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 23: 31-37.
Zhang JB, Li, HP, Dang FJ, Qu B, Xu YB, Zhao CS, Liao YC (2007) Determination of the trichothecene mycotoxin chemotypes and associated geographical distribution and phylogenetic species of the Fusarium graminearum clade from Chinese Mycological Research 111: 967-975.