تأثیر تراکم و زمان سبز شدن علف هرز تاج خروس (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) بر عملکرد چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

    به ­منظور مطالعۀ تأثیر تراکم و زمان ­سبز شدن علف­هرز تاج­خروس بر عملکرد چغندرقند، آزمایشی به­ صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل ترکیب 5 سطح تراکم تاج­خروس (1، 4، 8، 12 و 16 بوته در هر متر از ردیف) در چهار سطح زمان­ نسبی سبز شدن تاج­خروس (همزمان، 10، 20 و 30 روز پس از سبز شدن چغندرقند) همراه با تیمار شاهد عاری از علف­هرز بود. نتایج نشان داد که با زودتر سبزشدن تاج­خروس و افزایش تراکم آن، فیلوکرونی برگ­های ششم و هفتم در برخی تیمارها به 9 روز می­رسد، درحالی­که وقوع این فرآیند در شاهد 4 روز طول کشید. پوشش سبز تاج­خروس از حداقل صفر، 30 روز پس از سبز شدن چغندرقند تا حداکثر 59% در تیمار رقابت تمام فصل 16 بوته آن با چغندرقند تغییر کرد. با افزایش تراکم و سبز شدن زودتر علف­هرز، شاخص سطح برگ چغندرقند کاهش یافت و تأثیر تراکم علف­هرز مهم­تر بود. حضور تمام ­فصل 16 بوته تاج­خروس در هر متر از ردیف، عملکرد ریشه چغندرقند را در مقایسه با شاهد 23% کاهش داد. خسارت اقتصادی تاج­خروس روی چغندرقند موقعی شروع شد که حداقل 4 بوته علف هرز حداقل 20 روز پس از سبز شدن چغندرقند با آن رشد کرد. عملکرد قند از حداکثر 88/12 تن در هکتار در تیمار سبز شدن تاج­خروس 30 روز پس از سبز شدن چغندرقند تا حداقل 58/8 تن در هکتار در تیمار رقابت­ تمام­فصل 16 بوته تاج­خروس متغیر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of density and date of emergence of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) yield

نویسنده [English]

  • Bahram Mirshekari
assistant professor of department of agronomy and plant breeding, faculty of agriculture, islamic azad university, tabria branch, tabriz, iran.
چکیده [English]

   Effects of density and emergence date of redroot pigweed (RP) (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) yield were studied as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out. Treatments were five weed densities (1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeds per meter of row) at four relative times of weed emergence (simultaneous with and 10, 20 and 30 days after sugar beet emergence (DSE)) and a weed-free control. The results showed that early emergence along with high weed densities, phyllochrony of the sixth and seventh leaves were increased from 4 days in the control to 9 days in some treatments. Red root pigweed green cover ranged from zero in 1 RP per meter in row at 30 days after sugar beet emergence to 59% in full season interference (FSI) of 16 RP per meterin row. Leaf area index in sugar beet was reduced due to high weed density and early RP emergence, and the weed density was more effective than time of emergence. FSI of 16 RP per meter of row decreased sugar beet root yield to 23% as compared with the control. Economic damage of RP on sugar beet was started, when four RP per meter grew with sugar beet at least 20 DSE until late growing season. Sugar yield varied from 12.88 t. ha-1 in one RP per meter 30 DSE to 8.58 t. ha-1 in FSI of 16 RP per meter.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • phyllochrony
  • weed competition
  • loss estimation
Abasdokht H (2003) Ecophysiological study of competition between Amaranthus retroflexus and Glycine max. Ph.D. Thesis in Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University, 210 pp.

Blackshaw RE (1993) Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) interference in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Weed Science 39: 48-53.

Bosnic AC, Swanton CJ (1997) Influence of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) time of emergence and density on corn (Zea mays L.). Weed Science 43: 276-282.

Cowan P, Weaver SE, Swanton CJ (1998) Interference between pigweed (Amaranthusspp.), barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and soybean (Glycine max). Weed Science 46(5): 533-539.

Dabbagh Mohammady Nasab A, Javanshir A, Alyari H, Kazemi H, Moghaddam M (2000) Interference of simulated weed (Sorghum bicolor L.) with soybean (Glycine max L.). Turkish of Journal Field Crops 5: 7-11.

Dawson JH (1970) Time and duration of weed infestation in relation to weed-crop competition. South Weed Science, Soc. 23: 13-25.

Dieleman A, Hamill AS, Weise SF, Swanton CJ (1995) Empirical models of pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) interference in soybean (Glycine max L.). Weed Science 43: 612- 618. 

Graham PL, Steiner JL, Weise AF (1988) Light absorbtionand competition in mix soybean-pigweed communities. Agronomy Journal 80: 415-418.

Gupta OP (2000) Modern weed management. Agrobios Publ., India, 339 pp.

Hager AG, Wax LM, Simmons FW, Stoller EW (1997) Waterhemp management in agronomic crops. University of Illinois Bulletin. P: 12.

Kavaliauskaite D, Bobinas C (2006) Determination of weed competition critical period in red beet. Agronomy Research 4: 217-220.

Khajehpour MR (2000) Production of industrial plants. Jehad-e- Daneshgahi, Isfahan, 249 pp.

Knezevic SZ, Weise SF, Swanton CJ (1994) Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in corn (Zea mays L.). Weed Science 42: 568-573.

Koochecki A, Zarif Ketabi H, Nakhforoosh A (2002) Weed managements in agroecosystems (Translated). Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 457 pp.

Kropff MJ, Weaver SE, Smits MA (1992) Use of ecophysiological models for crop-weed interference: Relations amongst weed density, relative time of weed emergence, relative leaf area and yield loss. Weed Science 40: 296-301.

Lindquist JL, Martensen DA, Clay SA, Schmenk R, Kells JJ (1996) Stability of corn (Zea mays)-velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) interference relationships. Weed Science 44: 309-313.

Loomis RS, Williams WA, Duncan WJ, Dovrat A, Nunez F (1968) Quantitative descriptions of foliage display and light absorption in field communities of corn plants. Crop Science 8: 352-356.

Mc Lachlan SM, Tollenaar M, Swanton CJ, Weise SF (1993) Effect of corn-induced shading on dry matter accumulation, distribution and architecture of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Weed Science 41: 568-573.

Murphy SD, Yakubu Y, Weise SF, Swanton CJ (1996) Effect of planting patterns and inter-row cultivation on competition between corn (Zea mays) and late emerging weeds. Weed Science 44: 856-870.

O,Donovan JT, de St. Remy EA, O,Sullivan PA, Dew DA, Sharma AK (1985) Influence of the relative time of emergence of wild oat (Avena fatua) on yield loss of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Science 33: 498-503.

Pokovai K, Kovacs GJ, Dobos A (2004) Phyllochron dependence on solar radiation in maize. Proceedings of VIII ESA Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11-15 July, pp. 161-162. 

Rajcan I, Swanton CJ (2001) Understanding maize-weed competition: Resource competition, light quality and the whole plant. Field Crops Research 71(2): 139-150.

Ronald AE (2000) Amaranthus retroflexus / pigweed. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

Swanton CJ, Weise SF (1991) Integrated weed management: The rational and approach. Weed Technology 5: 657-663.

Tollenaar M (1999) Duration of the grain-filling period in maize is not affected by photoperiod and incident PPFD during the vegetative phase. Fields Crops Research 62: 15-21.

Tollenaar M, Dibo AA, Aguilera A, Weise SF, Swanton CJ (1994) Effect of crop density on weed interference in maize. Agronomy Journal 86: 591-595.

Velman RJ, Marlander W (1996) Evaluation of competitive power of four weeds in sugar beet. Field Crops Research 59(3): 223-342.