اثر تنش نیتروژن در مراحل مختلف رشد و نمو بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برنج رقم طارم محلی و کنترل علف‌های هرز

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد چالوس، گروه زراعت، چالوس، ایران.

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد قائم شهر، گروه زراعت، قائم شهر، ایران.

3 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، گروه زراعت، ساری، ایران.

4 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، گروه زراعت، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

     به منظور بررسی اثر تنش نیتروژن در مراحل مختلف رشد بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برنج رقم طارم محلی و هم‎چنین کنترل علف‌های هرز، آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مازندران (ساری) در سال 1388 اجرا شد. تیمار کنترل علف‌های هرز در دو سطح (بدون کنترل و وجین دستی) به عنوان عامل اصلی و تنش نیتروژن در چهار سطح (تنش در ابتدای کاشت، تنش در شروع پنجه‌دهی، تنش در مرحله ظهور سنبله، تنش در مرحله سنبله‌دهی کامل) به عنوان عامل فرعی بودند و تیمار بدون تنش نیتروژن به عنوان شاهد در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که ارتفاع گیاه و طول سنبله تحت تأثیر هیچ یک از تیمارها قرار نگرفتند. هم‎چنین اثر متقابل کنترل علف‌هرز × تنش نیتروژن بر هیچ یک از صفات مورد بررسی اثر معنی‌داری نداشت. عملکرد دانه در شرایط بدون کنترل علف هرز در مقایسه با وجین دستی حدود 6/21 درصد کاهش یافت، زیرا تعداد پنجه در بوته و درصد سنبلچه پر در رقابت با علف هرز کاهش یافتند. هم‎چنین عملکرد دانه در شرایط تنش نیتروژن در مراحل ابتدای کاشت و شروع پنجه‌دهی به دلیل کاهش تعداد پنجه در بوته و تعداد سنبله در متر مربع در مقایسه با شاهد به ترتیب 7/37 و 7/33 درصد کاهش یافت. بیشترین وزن خشک علف‌های هرز در تیمار تنش نیتروژن در ابتدای نشاءکاری حاصل شد که در مقایسه با شاهد 3/44 درصد افزایش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of nitrogen stress at different growth stages and weed control on the yield and yield components of rice (cv. Tarom-Mahalli)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrdad Mohammadi 1
  • hamidreza mobasser 2
  • morteza sam daliri 3
  • salman dastan 4
1 department of agronomy, chalous branch, islamic azad university, chalous, iran.
2 department of agronomy, qaemshahr branch, islamic azad university, qaemshahr, iran.
3 department of agronomy, agricultural and natural science university, sari, iran.
4 department of agronomy, science and research branch, islamic azad university, tehran, iran.
چکیده [English]

   Effects of nitrogen stress on different growth stages, as well as, weed control on yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Tarom Mahalli were investigated. The experiment was carried out as split-plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Sari region in 2009. Main factors were weed control at two levels (intact and weed control) and sub factors were allocated to nitrogen stresses including  nitrogen stress at the beginning of seedling transplanting, tillering, initial panicle stage, panicle completion and control (without nitrogen stress). Characteristics such as yield and its components were measured. Plant height and panicle length were not significantly affected by treatments. Indeed, significant interaction effects of weed control and nitrogen stress were not found for any traits evaluated. Regarding to weed free treatment, the grain yield was decreased comparing to weed control by 21.6%, because of the lower tiller number per plant and less filled spikelet per panicle competing weed. Nitrogen stresses at the beginning of transplanting and the start of tillering significantly decreased the grain yield by 37.7 and 33.7%, respectively comparing to non-stress treatment. The lowest tiller number per plant and panicle number per m2 were obtained when nitrogen stresses applied at these stages. The highest growth of weeds was obtained under nitrogen stress at the stage of transplanting, which increased weed dry weight by 44.3% copmaring to the control (no nitrogen stress).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • nitrogen application
  • Oryza sativa
  • weed management
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