بررسی امکان تولید مینی‎تیوبر در روش کشت آئروپونیک (هواکشت) و مقایسه آن با روش کشت معمولی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت علمی مرکز تحقیات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور بررسی امکان تولید مینی‎تیوبر دو رقم سیب‎زمینی، در روش هواکشت و مقایسه آن با روش کشت معمولی در سال 1388 در شرکت تولید بذر دشت زرین اردبیل انجام شد. گیاهچه‌های تولیدی از کشت بافت به اتاق تطابق‌پذیری منتقل شدند و سپس در محیط گلخانه‎ای و آزمایشگاهی کشت گردیدند. در روش هوا کشت و معمولی، گیاهچه‎های دو رقم سیب‎زمینی (آگریا و ساوالان) براساس طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار و با تراکم کاشت 10×10 سانتی‎متر کشت شدند.  در طی دوره رشد و بعد از برداشت صفات طول ریشه، طول استولون، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد و وزن مینی‎تیوبر در بوته و در مترمربع، متوسط اندازه مینی‎تیوبر و وضعیت انبارمانی مینی‎تیوبرها بررسی شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس صفات مورد ارزیابی نشان داد که بین روش کشت، ارقام و اثر متقابل آن‎ها از لحاظ صفات تعداد و وزن مینی‎تیوبر در متر مربع، متوسط اندازه مینی‎تیوبر، ارتفاع بوته و طول استولون اختلاف معنی‎دار وجود دارد. رقم ساوالان در روش هواکشت تعداد و وزن مینی‎تیوبر در متر مربع، طول استولون و طول ریشه بیشتری نسبت به رقم آگریا داشت. تعداد و وزن مینی‎تیوبر در متر مربع در روش هواکشت نسبت به روش معمولی به‎ترتیب 110 و 38 درصد بود. در این آزمایش با توجه به افزایش تعداد 493 مینی‎تیوبر در مترمربع روش هواکشت انتخاب و توصیه می‎شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Possible production of mini-tuber in aeroponic syetem and its comparison with conventional cultivation method

نویسنده [English]

  • Davoud Hassanpanah
faculty member of agricultural and natural resources research center of ardabil province, ardabil, iran.
چکیده [English]

This study was performed to examine the possibile production of mini-tubers (seeds) of two potato cultivars (Savalan and Agria) in an aeroponic system and its comparison with the conventional cultivation method in 2009 at Seed Production Company of Dashte-Zarin, Ardebil. Seedlings obtained from tissue culture were transferred to an adaptation room and then planted in the greenhouse under in vivo conditions. In both aeroponic and conventional systems, a completely randomized design with three replications having plant densities of 10×10 cm2 was used. During the growth period and after harvest, characteristics like root length, stolon length, plant height, number and weight of mini-tubers per plant and m2, average of mini-tuber size and mini-tuber storage durability were measured. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences between two systems, two cultivars and their interactions for the number and weight of mini-tuber/ m2, average of mini-tuber size, plant height and stolon length. Savalan cultivar had higher mini-tuber number and weight (per m2), stolon length and root length than Agria cultivar. Number and weight (per m2) of mini-tubers, in an aeroponic system was 110% and 38% higher than the conventional method, respectively. In this experiment, because of increasing 493 mini-tuber/m2, aeroponic approch was chosed and recommended for potato seed production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Potato
  • Mini-tuber
  • Aeroponic system
Anonymous (2010) Statistics vegetables (potato). Jahad-e-Agriculture Ministry. http://www.maj.ir

Balamani V, Veluthambi K, Poovaiah BW (1986) Effect of calcium on tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Plant Physiology 80: 856-858.

Biddinger EJ, Liu CM, Joly RJ, Raghothama KG (1998) Physiological and molecular responses of aeroponically grown tomato plants to phosphorus deficiency. Journal of American Society Horticulture Science 123: 330- 333.

Caspersen S, Sundin P, Munro M, Aoalsteinsson S, Hooker JE, Jensen P (1999). Interactive effects of lettuce (Lacuca sativa L.), irradiance and ferulic acid in axenic, hydroponic culture. Plant Soil 210: 115-126.

Cho YD, Kang SG, Kim YD, Shin GH, Kim KT (1996) Effects of culture systems on growth and yield of cherry tomatoes in hydroponics. Journal of Agricultural Science 38: 563-567.

Farran I,  Mingo-Castel AM (2006) Potato mini-tuber production using aeroponics: Effect of plant density and harvesting intervals. American Journal of Potato Research 83(1): 47-53.

Gysi C, Allmen FV (1997) Balance of water and nutrients in tomatoes grown on soilless systems. Agrarforschung 4:1.

Hassanpanah D, Azimi J (2011) Mini-tuber production potential of potato cultivars in repeated and conventional harvesting under in vivo condition. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 9(1): 398-403.

Kang BK, Han SH (2005) Production of seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under the recycling capillary culture system using controlled release fertilizers. Journal of Japan Society Horticulture Science 74(4): 295-299.

Kang JG, Yang SY, Kim SY (1996) Effects of nitrogen levels on the plant growth, tuberization and quality of potatoes grown in aeroponics. Journal of Korean Society Horticulture Science 37: 761-766.

Kim HS, Lee EM, Lee MA, Woo IS, Moon CS, Lee YB, Kim SY (1999) Production of high quality potato plantlets by autotrophic culture for aeroponic systems. Journal of Korean Society Horticulture Science 123: 330-333.

Lommen WJM (1995) Basic studies on the production and performance of potato mini-tubers. Ph.D thesis, Wageningen Agriculture University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 181 pp.

Lommen WJM, Struik PC (1992) Production of potato mini-tubers by repeated harvesting: Effects of crop husbandry on yield parameters. Potato Research 35: 419-432.

Lugt C, Bodlaender KBA, Goodijk G (1964) Observation on the induction of second growth in potato tubers. European Potato Journal 4: 219- 227.

Martin-Laurent F, Lee SK, Tham FY, He J, Diem HG, Durand P (1997) A new approach to enhance growth and nodulation of Acacia mangium through aeroponic culture. Biological Fertilizer Soils 25: 7-12.

Mascarenhas F (1993) Handbook of plant tissue culture, ICAR, New Delpi, 27.

Molitor HD, Fischer M, Popadopoulos AP (1999) Effect of several parameters on the growth of chrysanthemum stock plants in aeroponics. Acta Horticulture 481(1): 179-186.

Muro J, Diaz V, Goni JL, Lamsfus C (1997) Comparison of hydroponic culture and culture in a peat/sand mixture and the influence of nutrient solution and plant density on seed potato yields. Potato Research 40: 431-438.

Nichols M, Christie B, Jegathees A, Gibson J (2004) Rapid high health seed potato production using aeroponics.  Massey University. http://www.maximumyield.com/viewart.php?article=182.

Nugaliyadde MM, De Silva HDM, Perera R, Ariyaratna D, Sangakkara UR (2005) An aeroponic system for the production of pre-basic seeds of potato. Annals Sri Lanka Department Agriculture 7: 199-208.

Pajohandeh M (2001) Creation of in vitro bank of potato virus-free germplasm. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Plant Pathology, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran. 210 pp.

Park HS, Chiang MH, Park HS (1997) Effects of form and concentration of nitrogen in aeroponic solution on growth, chlorophyll, nitrogen contents and enzyme activities in Cucumis sativum L. plant. Journal of Korean Society Horticulture Science 38: 642-646.

Ritter E, Angulo B, Riga P, Herran C, Relloso J, Sanjose M (2001) Comparison of hydroponic and aeroponic cultivation systems for the production of potato mini-tubers. Potato Research 44: 127-135.

Scoggins HL, Mills HA (1998) Poinsettia growth, tissue nutrient concentration, and nutrient up take as influenced by nitrogen form and stage of growth. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21: 191-198.

Soffer H, Burger DW (1988) Effects of dissolved oxygen concentration in aero-hydroponics on the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Journal of American Society Horticulture Science 3: 218-221.

Vreugdenhil D, Struik PC (1989) An integrated view of the hormonal regulation of tuber formation in potato (Solantml tuberosttm). Physiologia Plantarttm 75: 525-531.