پراکنش، سبب شناسی و بیماری زایی آنتراکنوز گردو در ناحیه شمال غرب ایران

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه، میانه، ایران.

چکیده

     آنتراکنوز گردو شایع­ترین بیماری قارچی گردو در ایران بوده و در سال­های پرباران و خنک، خسارت­ زیادی به این محصول وارد می‎کند. این مطالعه به منظور سبب شناسی و تعیین پراکندگی بیماری در ناحیه شمال غرب کشور به عنوان یکی از قطب­های عمده تولید گردو انجام گردید. در این تحقیق تعداد 75 جدایه از گردوکاری­های 11 استان ناحیه شمال­غرب کشور جداسازی گردید. پریتسیوم­ها از برگ­های ریخته شده استحصال و یا تولید آن‎ها با نگهداری کشت­های خالص به مدت سه ماه در دمای 10 درجه سلسیوس القا شد. براساس مطالعات انجام شده همه جدایه­ها Ophiognomonia leptostylaشناسایی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اقلیم­هایی که این بیماری در آن‎ها شایع بود، غالباً از نوع سرد و یا معتدل بودند. هیچ یک از جدایه­ها به اقلیم­های گرم و نیمه‎گرم تعلق نداشتند. این بیماری در طیف وسیعی از اقلیم­ها از لحاظ میزان رطوبت مشاهده شد. هم‎چنین 73 درصد جدایه­ها از ارتفاع 2000-1000 متری از سطح دریا به دست آمدند. آزمون بیماری­زایی روی نهال­های گردو نیز حاکی از تنوع بین جدایه­ها از لحاظ شاخص بیماری و زمان تشکیل آسروول­ در برگ بود و این دو ویژگی همبستگی منفی و معنی‎داری با هم داشتند. هم‎چنین گروه­بندی جدایه­ها براساس صفات بیماری­زایی، آن‎ها را در پنج گروه با بیماری­زایی بسیار کم، کم، متوسط، بالا و بسیار بالا قرار داد. شناخت از درجه بیماری­زایی جمعیت قارچی موجود، پس از معرفی ارقام استاندارد گردو و آزمون بیماری­زایی روی آن‎ها، به شناسایی پاتوتیپ­ها خواهد انجامید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Distribution, etiology and pathogenicity of walnut anthracnose in northwest of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Soleiman Jamshidi
  • siamak salahi
Scientific Board of Plant Protection Department, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh, Iran.
چکیده [English]

   Walnut anthracnose is the most prevalent disease in common walnut in Iran and could be very destructive in rainy and cool seasons. The study purpose was specifying etiology and distribution of walnut anthracnose in northwest of Iran as one of the main walnut production poles. Seventy five isolates were isolated from 11 provinces located in northwest region of Iran. Perithecia were obtained from the fallen leaves or induced on growth media for three months at 10oC incubation. According to this study, the only species identified was Ophiognomonia leptostyla. The climates which the disease was incident were mostly cold or moderate. None of the isolates belonged to warm or semi-warm climates. It could be found in a wide range of humidity; also most of them (73%) were obtained in 1000-2000 m altitude. Pathogenicity test on walnut seedlings showed that there was huge variation based on disease index and the day of acervulus formation among isolates. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the two mentioned pathological characteristics. Isolates clustering based on their pathogenicity showed they were grouped in five categories comprising very low, low, moderate, high and very high in virulence.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Walnut black spot
  • Etiology
  • Anthracnose
  • Ophiognomonia leptostyla
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