اثر تنش خشکی و روش‎های آبیاری بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دو هیبرید ذرت

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج.

2 استادیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه.

3 عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه.

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه آزاد ایلامی واحد کرج

5 عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان.

6 دانشیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ورامین.

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دو هیبریدذرت SC704  وSC647 تحت شرایط تنش خشکی و دو روش آبیاری، آزمایشی به‎صورت فاکتوریل اسپیلت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه آزمایشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج طی سال‎های 1384و 1385 انجام شد. در این آزمایش اعمال تیمار تنش خشکی در سه سطح به صورت آبیاری پس از  40درصد،60 درصد، و 75 درصد تخلیه رطوبت قابل دسترس خاک و نیز روش آبیاری به دو روش آبیاری تمام ردیف‌های کاشت و آبیاری یک در میان ردیف‌های کاشت به عنوان فاکتور اصلی  و دو هیبرید به عنوان فاکتور فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تنش خشکی بر عملکرد دانه و کلیه اجزای عملکرد اثر معنی‎داری داشت و تنش شدید موجب 37 درصد کاهش عملکرد گردید. روش آبیاری بر عملکرد دانه تأثیر معنی‎داری نداشت، ولی اثرات متقابل معنی‎دار بود. به طوری که در آبیاری کامل به شیوه آبیاری تمام ردیف‎های کاشت، هیبریدSC647 رقم مناسب‏تری بود. ولی در روش آبیاری یک در میان، هیبرید SC704 عملکرد بیشتری را تولید کرد. هم‏چنین در شرایط کم آبیاری، هیبرید SC704 در روش آبیاری تمام ردیف‎های کاشت عملکرد بیشتری نسبت به هیبرید SC647 تولید نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of drought stress and irrigation methods on yield and yield components in two hybrids of corn (Zea mays L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzad Paknejad 1
  • saeed vazan 2
  • jalil ajali 3
  • mojtaba Mirakhori 4 5
  • mohammad nasiri 6
1 Assist Prof., Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Iran.
2 Assist Prof., Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Iran. E-mail: farzad_paknejad@kiau.ac.ir
3 Scientific Board of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch, Iran.
4 M. Sc. Student and member of Young Researcher’s Clup, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Iran.
5 M. Sc. Student and member of Young Researcher’s Clup, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Iran.
6 Associate Prof., Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch, Varamin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of drought stress and two irrigation methods on yield and
yield components in two hybrid varieties of corn named: SC704 and SC647. A split-split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with tree replicates was used at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch (35°43´ N latitude, 50° 56´E longitude, 1160m altitude) in 2006 and
2007. Main plots were allocated to drought treatments that were applied at 40%, 60% and 75% levels of soil moisture depletion, sub-polts to two levels of irrigation methods (irrigation of all furrows and irrigation furrows alternately) and sub-sub plots to two hybrid varieties. The results showed that drought stress had significant effects on yield and yield components and sever stress treatment (75% moisture depletion) caused 37% yield reduction. Two irrigation methods didn’t have any significant effects on grain yield, but a significant interaction effect of genotype and watre stress was observed, whereas the hybrid SC647 produced more yield in full irrigated furrows and hybrid SC704 produced more yield in the alternative irrigated furrows. Indeed, SC704 yielded more than SC647 under water deficit condition when all furrows were irrigated. There was a significant positive correlation between grain yield with biomass, grain weight (r = 0.67), grain number in plant row, grain number in plant row (r = 0.72), plant height and a negative correlation with inoculated part of cob (r = -0.76).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Zea mays
  • Drought stress
  • Irrigation methods
  • Grain yield
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