بررسی امکان تغییر فسفر قابل جذب خاک‌های آهکی و اثر آن بر عملکرد ذرت

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فارغ التحصیل دوره دکتری دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران.

2 استادیار مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب.

3 دانشیار مؤسسه تحقیقات ثبت، کنترل و گواهی بذر.

4 استاد دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم تحقیقات.

5 کارشناسی ارشد زراعت دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

چکیده

   اسیدیته بالای خاک‌ها در اکثر مناطق زیر کشت ذرت در ایران موجب کاهش دسترسی گیاه به عناصر غذایی خصوصاً فسفر می‎گردد. کاربرد گوگرد و اکسایش آن با کاهش موضعی اسیدیته خاک، می‎تواند باعث افزایش قابلیت جذب فسفر در خاک‌های آهکی شود. منابع ارزان قیمت فسفر، مانند خاک‌فسفات و کمپوست امروزه درکشاورزی بسیار مورد توجه قرار گرفته و می‎توانند به منظور افزایش فسفر قابل جذب خاک و برطرف کردن نیاز گیاه مؤثر واقع شوند. در تحقیق حاضر به‏منظور بررسی تأثیر تغییر اسیدیته بخشی از خاک و افزایش فسفر روی عملکرد ذرت رقم سینگل کراس 301، آزمایشی با تیمارهای مختلف شامل خاک‌فسفات (آپاتیت)، ریز جانداران حل کننده فسفات، گوگرد تلقیح‌شده با باکتری‌های اکساینده گوگرد و کمپوست انجام گردید. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در 3 تکرار و چهار عامل:  باکتری حل کننده فسفات در دو سطح (شاهد و باکتری Bacillus megaterium)، آپاتیت در دو سطح (صفر و یک تن در هکتار)، مواد آلی در دو سطح (صفر و ده تن در هکتار) و گوگرد تلقیح‌شده با باکتری‌های تیو باسیلوسThiobacillus sp.  در دو سطح (صفر و چهار تن در هکتار) در مزرعه تحقیقاتی موسسه خاک و آب (مشکین دشت کرج) انجام گردید. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه (9600 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار حاوی کمپوست و باکتری باسیلوس به دست آمد. عملکرد دانه در تیمار‌هایی که آپاتیت در آن‏ها به تنهایی مصرف شده بود (6937 کیلوگرم در هکتار)  به طور معنی‌داری کمتر از شاهد (7700 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود. استفاده از آپاتیت، نه تنها فسفر محلول خاک را افزایش نداد، بلکه با اسیدیته بالا (8/8)  بر خصوصیات خاک و رشد گیاه در خاک‎های قلیایی اثر منفی داشت. بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق کاربرد باکتری باسیلوس مگاتریوم و کمپوست  با افزایش دسترسی ذرت به عناصر غذایی مانند فسفر باعث افزایش عملکرد شده و قابل توصیه می‎باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The possible modification of absorbable phosphorus solubles in calcareus soils and it’s effects on yield production in corn

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Reza Doroudian 1
  • hosein besharati 2
  • alireza falahnosratabad 2
  • hosein Heidari Sharif Abad 3
  • farokh Darvish 4
  • asefeh Alahverdi 5
1 Ph. D. Graduated, Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Prof., Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Iran.
3 Associate Prof., Seed and Plant Registration, Certification, Research Institute, Karaj, Iran.
4 Prof., Department of Crop Breeding. Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Science and Research Branch, Tehran., Iran.
5 M. Sc. Graduated, Department of Agronomy, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Alkalinity of soils in many cultivated areas of corn in Iran prevents the accessability of nutrients, particularly
phosphore (P), by the plant. Application of solphur (S) and its subsequent oxidation which is usually accompayning with a reduction of soil PH will enhance the absorbability of P and most micronutrient solubles in the soil. Today, low price of phosphorus sources such as apatite and composts can be taken into consideration as phosphorus fertilizers for plant nutrients in agriculture. These sources could promote absorbable phosphors in the alkaline soils and later on taken by the plant. However, we studied effects of changing PH and increasing phosphorus solubles in the soil on yield production of a corn single cross 301. The experiment was a factorial based on a  randomized complete block design with three replications and carried out at the Research Station of Soil and Water Research Institute, Karaj, Iran, in 2005. The experiment consisted of four factors, each at two levels such as: urban compost (0 and 10 t/ha), Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSB) as check and bacteria, apatite (0 and 1 t/ha) and phosphor (P) inoculated with oxidative Thiobacillus bacteria (0 and 4 t/ha).. The results showed that the highest yield (9600 kg/ha) was obtaind for the application of compost and Bacillus megaterium treatment. For the factors in which only apatites was used, yielded the lowest value (6937 kg/ha) as compared to the check (7700 kg/ha). Indeed, interaction effects of compost and Bacillus megaterium was significant (P <0.05) for yield. Application of apatite in alkality soils not only did not increase phosphorus solubles, but had a negative effect on the soil characteristics and plant growth. It is suggested that application of compost and Bacillus megaterium promote the accessability of plant to nutrients like phosphor and consequently will increase yield production of corn in the field.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apatite
  • Bacillus megaterium
  • corn
  • PSB
  • sulfur
  • Thiobacillus
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