Aghaalikhani, M. and Rahimian Mashhadi, H. 2002. Study of quantitative growth parameters of grain corn and redroot pigweed. 7th Iranian Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Karaj, Iran. [In Persian with English Abstract].
Arshi, Y. 1995. Science and technology of sunflower. Center of Cotton and Oil Seeds of Iran, 719 PP. [In Persian with English Abstract].
Bensch, C. N., Horak, M. J. and Peterson, D. E. 2001. Amaranthus competition in sunflower. Proc. North Cent. Weed Science Society, P. 81.
Bielinski, M. S. 2003. Interfernce of Amaranthus hybridus and Portulaca oleracea on lentile. Weed Technology 2: 111-115.
Dawson, J. H. 1998. Time and duration of weed infestation in relation to weed-crop competition. South Weed Science Society 23: 13-25.
Dieleman, A., Hamill, A. S., Weise, S. F. and Swanton, C. J. 1995. Empirical models of pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) interference in soybean (Glycine max L.). Weed Science 43: 612- 618.
Ghosheh, H. Z., Holshouser, D. L. and Chandler, J. M. 1996. Influence of density on johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) interference in field corn (Zea mays). Weed Science 44: 879-883.
Gupta, O. P. 2006. Modern weed management. Agrobios Publ., India, 339 Pp.
Hartley, M. J. and Popay, A. J. 1992. Yield losses due to weeds in sugar-beet, corn and dwarf beans. Proc. of the 45th Newzeland Plant Protection Conference, Wellington, Newzeland, Pp. 52-54.
Hejazi, A., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Torkamani, A. and Shahverdi, M. 2005. Determination of critical period of weed control in sunflower. 6th Iranian Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Babolsar, Iran. [In Persian with English Abstract].
Klingman, T. E. and Oliver, L. R. 1994. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Science 42: 523-527.
Knezevic, S. Z., Horak, M. J. and Vanderlip, R. L. 1997. Relative time of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) emergence is critical in pigweed-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench.) competition. Weed Science 45: 502-505.
Knezevic, S. Z., Weise, S. F. and Swanton, C. J. 1994. Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in corn (Zea mays L.). Weed Science 42: 568-573.
Koucheki, A., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Nasiri Mahallati, M. and Khiabani, H. 1995. Weeds ecology. Jehad Daneshgahi, Mashhad University, 244 Pp. [In Persian with English Abstract].
Kropff, M. J., Weaver, S. E. and Smith, M. A. 1992. Use of ecophysiological models for crop-weed interference: Relations amongst weed density, relative time of weed emergence, relative leaf area and yield loss. Weed Science 40: 296-301.
Mahmoudi, S. 2002. Ecophysiological study of competition between lambsquarters and corn. Ph.D. Thesis, Tehran University, 210 Pp. [In Persian with English Abstract].
Medina, P. 1996. Outline of the biology and ecology of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album): Weed biology and ecology. University of Guelph, Canada, 44 Pp.
Mickelson, J. A. and Harvey, R.G. 1999. Effect of Eriochloa villosa density and time of emergence on growth and seed production in Zea mays. Weed Science 47: 687-692.
Mirshekari, B., Javanshir, A., Dabbagh Mohammadinasab, A., Nourmohammadi, G. and Rahimian mashhadi, H. 2005. Effects of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) density and time of emergence on sunflower (cv. Hysun 33) yield and yield components. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science 7 (4): 365-377.
Moolani, M. K., Knake, E. L. and Slife, S. W. 1994. Competition of smooth pigweed with corn and soybeans. Weed Research 12: 126-128.
Patterson, D. T. 1995. Comparative ecophysiology of weeds and crops. I: Reproduction and ecophysiology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 198 Pp.
Peters, N. C. B. and Wilson, B. J. 1983. Some studies on the competition between Avena fatua L. and spring barley. II: Variation of A. fatua emergence and development and it’s influence on crop yield. Weed Research. 23: 305-311.
Rafael. A. M., Randall, S. C., Michael, J. H. and John, B. J. 2001. Interference of palmer amaranth in corn. Weed Science 49: 202-208.
Rajcan, I. and Swanton, C. J. 2001. Understanding maize-weed competition: Resource competition, light quality and the whole plant. Field Crops Research 71: 139-150.
Rashed Mohasel, M. H., Rahimian Mashhadi, H. and Banayan, M. 1992. Weeds control. Jehad-E-Daneshgahi, Mashhad University, 576 Pp. [In Persian with English Abstract].
Robinson, D., Wagner, R. G. and Swanton, C. J. 2002. Effects of nitrogen on the growth of Jack pine competing with Canada blue-joint grass and large-leaved aster. Forest Ecology and Management 160: 233-242.
Sanei Shariat Panahi, M. 1998. Weed flora in near east. Nashr Amouzesh Keshavarzi, 217 Pp. [In Persian with English Abstract].
Santos, B. M., Dusky, J. A., Stall, W. M., Shilling, D. J. and Bewick, T. A. 1997. Influence of smooth pigweed and common purslane on lettuce as affected by phosphorus fertility. Proc. of Florida State Horticulture Society 110: 315-317.
Sarmadnia, G. and Koucheki, A. 1993. Crop physiology. Jehad Daneshgahi, Mashhad University, 468 Pp. [In Persian with English Abstract].
Shahverdi, M., Hejazi, A. and Rahimian Mashhadi, H. 2001. Determination of critical period of weed control in sunflower (cv. Record). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science 4 (3): 111-121. [In Persian with English Abstract].
Soltani, E. 1994. Sunflower and rapeseed weeds flora. Jehad Keshavarzi, East Azarbaijan, 15 Pp.
Stoller, E. W., Harrison, S. K., Wax, L. M., Regnier, E. E. and Nafziger, E. D. 1997. Weed interference in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Science 3: 155- 181. [In Persian with English Abstract]
Swanton, C. J. and Murphy, S. D. 1996. Weed science beyond the weeds: The role of integrated weed management (IWM) in agro-ecosystem health. Weed Science 44: 437- 445.
Swanton, C. J. and Weise, S. F. 1998. Integrated weed management: The rational and approach. Weed Technology 5: 657-663.
Swanton, C. J., Weaver, T. S., Cowan, P., Van Acker, R., Deen, W. and Shreshta, A. 1999. Weed thresholds: Theory and applicability. Journal of Crop Production 2: 9-29.
Tranel, P. and Murphy, S. D. 2003. Interference of soybean with Amaranthus retroflexus in monoculture and intercropping. Weed Science 50: 103-109.
Zimdahl, R. L. 1990. Weed-crop competition: A review in weed management in agro-ecosystems: Ecological approaches. Altieri and Liebaman Publ., Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 101 Pp