عملکرد و شاخص برداشت آفتابگردان در شرایط تک کشتی و رقابت با تاج‎خروس

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات.

چکیده

    به منظور اندازه­گیری عکس­العمل آفتابگردان از نظر عملکرد و شاخص برداشت در شرایط تک کشتی و رقابت با علف هرز تاج‎خروس، آزمایشی در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تبریز در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی به­صورت فاکتوریل با سه رقم­ آفتابگردان (آذرگل، هایسان وآلستار)، تراکم­ تاج­خروس (5، 15 و 25 بوته در هر متر ردیف) و زمان‏های سبز شدن­ تاج‎خروس (هم‎زمان، 15 و 30 روز بعد از سبز شدن آفتابگردان) در طی سال‎های 86-1385 اجرا شد و تیمار کشت خالص ارقام آفتابگردان نیز به عنوان شاهد در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که از نظر عملکرد بیولوژیک، سطح سوم زمان­ سبز شدن تاج­خروس با 680 کیلوگرم در هکتار کمترین اختلاف را با شاهد بدون علف هرز  داشت. بیوماس هوایی آفتابگردان از 1850 گرم در متر مربع در شاهد به کمتر از 1350 گرم در متر مربع در تیمار رقابت تمام فصل 25 بوته تاج­خروس کاهش یافت. در رقم آذرگل افزایش تراکم تاج‎خروس از 5 به 15 و از 15 به 25 بوته در هر متر ردیف در مرحله 15 روز پس از سبز شدن عملکرد دانه را به­ترتیب حدود 7 و 14 درصد در مقایسه با شاهد کاهش داد. در رقم هایسان هیچ‎یک از تیمارها نتوانستند در رقابت با تاج‎خروس عملکردی مشابه با ­شاهد تولید کنند و عملکرد دانه از 3858 کیلوگرم در هکتار در شاهد تا 49%، 37% و 16% به­ترتیب در زمان­های اول، دوم و سوم زمان سبز شدن تاج­خروس افت کرد. در رقم آلستار حداقل کاهش عملکرد در ضعیف­ترین حالت رقابت ممکن 35% اندازه­گیری شد که دلیل بر شدت رقابت تاج‎خروس با این رقم بود. در مقایسه با شاهد، شاخص برداشت در آذرگل، هایسان و آلستار به‎ترتیب 5/6%, 13% و 39% کاهش داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Yield and harvest index of sunflower (Helianthus annus) grown by a monocultur system in competition with redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)

نویسنده [English]

  • Bahram Mirshekari
Assistant Prof., Agronomy and plant Breeding Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Study the effects of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) interference on yield and harvest index of
sunflower (Helianthus annus), a factorial experiment based on a randomized complet block design was carried out in the Islamic Azad University of Tabriz Branch, in 2007 and 2008. Factors were three weed densities (5, 15 and 25 plants m-1 in row) at three subsequent times of weed emergences (at the same time, 15 and 30 days after sunflower germination) and three sunflower cultivars (Azarghol, Hysun and Allstar). Indeed, a control plot was also considered for each variety in the experiment by roghing weeds. The results showed that biological yield at the third level of weed emergence time appeared with a very low difference with the weed-free control (680 kg ha-1). Sunflower biomass decreased from 1850 g/m-2 of the control to 1350 g/m-2 during the full season interference of 25 weeds m-1 in row. Yield production in Azarghol at weed emergence time of the 15 days ofter sunflower emergence decreased by 7% and 14% of that of the control where weed density increased from a range of 5 to 15 and 15 to 25 plants/m-1 in row, respectively. Regarding to the Hysun variety, all weed treatments yielded lower than the control, and the yield of three weed emergence time treatments (at the same time, 15 and
30 days after crop emergence) was reduced by 49%, 37% and 16% of the control (3858) kg/ha-1, respectively. In
Allstar variety, the yield loss was more considerable than the other two varieties and it was reduced by 35% of the lowest competition treatment that means this variety is highly susceptible to compete with weed plants like redroot pigweed. The harvest index was also disclosed high variation between three cultivars since it’s value was decreased by 6.5%, 13% and 39% of the control yield in varieties Azarghol, Hysun and Allstar, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biomass
  • harvest index
  • Redroot Pigweed
  • Sunflower
  • weed
  • yield
  • competition
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