تأثیر روش‌ خاک‌ورزی و مدیریت بقایای گندم بر برخی خصوصیات خاک و عملکرد ذرت دانه‌ای در کرمان

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

عضو هیأت علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمان.

چکیده

مدیریت روش های خاک‎ورزی و بقایای گیاهی بر برخی خصوصیات خاک و به تبع آن بر عملکرد محصول تأثیر می‎گذارد. هدف از این تحقیق مقایسه اثر سیستم‌های خاک‎ورزی مرسوم، کم خاک‎ورزی و بدون خاک‎ورزی و همچنین اثر کاربرد بقایای گندم  بر برخی خصوصیات خاک در زراعت ذرت دانه ای در  یک سال زراعی در کرمان بود. برای این منظور چهار سطح تیمارهای خاک‌ورزی و دو سطح تیمارهای کاربرد بقایای گندم در مزرعه تحقیقاتی شهید زنده‌روح کرمان اعمال گردید. سطوح تیمارهای خاک‌ورزی عبارت بودند از: 1- خاک‌ورزی مرسوم ) (CT 2- کم خاک‌ورزی) (RT 3- بدون خاک‌ورزی و کشت روی شیار(NT1) 4-  بدون خاک‌ورزی و کشت کف شیار) (NT2. تیمارهای مدیریت بقایای گندم در دو سطح: 1- حفظ بقایای گندم سال قبلی در مزرعه و 2- جمع‌آوری و خروج بقایای گندم سال قبلی از مزرعه اعمال شدند. این آزمایش با سه تکرار در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و به ‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده اجرا گردید. کربن آلی (OC)، جرم مخصوص ظاهری (BD) و شاخص مخروط خاک، ارتفاع بوته‌ها، عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد در طی آزمایش اندازه‎گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد خاک مزرعه در تیمار CT و RT کمترین OC و در تیمارهای NT1 و NT2 بیشترین OC را داشت. BD خاک تحت تأثیر تیمارها قرار نگرفت. شاخص مخروط خاک در تیمار CT حداقل و در تیمارهای NT1 و NT2 حداکثر شد. عملکرد دانه  در RT بیشترین (99/13 تن در هکتار) و در تیمارهای NT1و NT2 به حداقل معادل 59/10 و 99/9 تن در هکتار رسید. اجزای عملکرد (تعداد ردیف در بلال و وزن هزار دانه) تحت تأثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفت. به نظر می‌رسد اعمال تیمارهای مورد مطالعه در مدت زمان طولانی احتمالا بتواند خصوصیات بیشتری از خاک را تحت تأثیر قرار بدهد و در عملکرد ذرت نقش بیشتری داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of tillage method and wheat residual management on some soil properties and grain corn yield in Kerman, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzad Azadshahraki
  • hormoz nagavi
  • Hamid najafinejad
Scientific Boards of Research Center of Agriculture, Kerman.
چکیده [English]

Managements of tillage and plant residual effect on some soil properties and consequently yield was studied. The goal of this research was to compare the effect of conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no tillage systems and the effect of wheat residues on some soil properties and corn grain yield in the subsequent year. For this purpose, four tillage treatments and two wheat residual managements were selected at Kerman Research Farm Station (Shahid Zendeh Rooh). Tillage treatments were: 1. conventional tillage (CT), 2. minimum tillage (RT), 3. no tillage and planting at the top of furrows (NT1) and 4. no tillage and planting on the base of furrows (NT2). Wheat residual managements were: 1. preservation of previous year wheat residues in the farm and 2. gathering pervious year wheat residues. This experiment was performed as a split plot in a randomized complete block design with three reapplications. Soil organic carbon (OC), bulk density (BD) and soil cone index, height of plant, yield and yield components were measured during the experiment. The results showed that OC in CT and RT treatments became minimum and reached to maximum in NT1 and NT2 treatments. The treatments had not any significant effects on BD. Soil cone index in CT treatment was the lowest and increased in RT and became maximum in NT1 and NT2 treatments. Grain yield was high in RT (13.99 ton/ha).The lowest yield was measured in NT1 and NT2 (10.59 and 9.99 ton/ha), respectively. Yield components (rows in ear and 1000 kernel weight) were not affected by the different treatments. It seems that application of the treatments could be efficient on more soil properties in a long term for corn cultivation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • corn
  • Tillage
  • Wheat residual
  • yield
Annonymous (1995) Soil cone penetrometer. ASAE standard S313. 2. Agricultural Engineering Year Book,
pp. 683.

Asadi A (2004) Effect of barrenly residue management on some soil properties and yield in forage corn – barerly rotation. Agricultural and Natural Resources Center of  Isfahan. Final Report. No.85-889. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Atwell BJ (1993) Response of roots to mechanical impedance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 33:
27- 40.

Bahrani M, Raufat MB, Ghadiri H (2007) Influence of wheat residue management on irrigated corn grain production in a reduced tillage system. Soil and Tillage Research 94: 305-309.

Benjamin JG, Mikha MM, Merle FR (2008) Organic carbon effects on soil physical and hydraulic properties in a semi arid climate. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72: 1357-1362.

Bono A, Alvarez R, Buschiazzo DE, Cantet RJC (2008) Tillage effects on soil carbon balance in a semiarid agroecosystem. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72: 1140-1149.

Burnside OC, Wicks GA, Carlson DR (1980) Control of weeds in oat (Avena sativa), soybean (Glycine max) in ecofarming rotation. Weed Science 28: 1256-1260.

Campbell DJ, Henshall K (1991) Bulk density. p. 329–366. In K.A. Smith and C.E. Mullins (ed.) Soil analysis. Physical methods. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Chen YM, Monero FV, Lobb D, Tessier S, Cavers C (2004) Effects of six tillage methods on residue incorporation and crop performance in a heavy clay soil. ASAE Journal. 47: 1003-1010.

Christensen NB, Lindemann WC, Sosa ES, Gill LR (1994) Nitrogen and carbon dynamics in no-till and stubble mulch tillage systems. Agronomy Journal 86: 298-303.

Dom RF, Mehdi BB, Burgress MSE, Madramootoo CA, Mehuys GR, Callum IR (2004) Soil bulk density and crop yield under eleven consecutive years of corn with different tillage and residue practices in a sandy loam soil in central Canada. Soil and Tillage Research 84: 41-53.

Ghuman BS, Sur HS (2001) Tillage and residue management effects on soil properties in a direct drill tillage system. Soil and Tillage Research 42: 209-219.

 Griffith DR, Kladirko EJ, Mannering JV, West TD, Parsons SD (1988) Long term tillage and rotation effects on corn growth and yield on high and low organic mater, poorly drained soils. Agronomy Journal 80: 599-605.

Havlin PJ, Kissel DE, Maddux LD, Claassen MM, Long JH (1990) Crop rotation effect on soil organic carbon and nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54: 448-452.

Heidari A (2004) The effects of crop residue management and tillage depth on wheat yield and soil organic carbon in corn-wheat rotation. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 2(7): 65-79. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Hussain I, Olson KR, Ebelhar SA (1999) Long- term tillage effect on soil chemical properties and organic matter fractious. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63: 1335- 1341.

Jamshidian R, Khajehpour MR (1998) Effects of seedbed preparation methods on compaction and nutrients contents of soil and on establishment of mungbean after wheat. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 2(3): 35-47. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Jamshidian R, Khajehpour, MR (1999) Effects of seedbed preparation methods on vegetative growth, yield and yield components of mungbean. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 3(1): 9-19.
[In Persian with English Abstract].

Karlen DL, Sojka RE (1985) Hybrid and irrigation effects on conservation tillage corn in the coastal plains. Agronomy Journal 77: 591-567.

Lal R, Mohboubi A, Fausey NR (1994) Long- term tillage and rotation effects on properties of central Ohio soils. Soil Science  Society of America Journal 58: 517-522.

Lampulanes J, Cantero- Martinez C (2003) Soil bulk density and penetration resistance under different tillage and crop management systems and their relationship with barely root growth. Agronomy Journal 95: 526-536.

Logsdon SD, Karlen DL (2004) Bulk density as a soil quality indicator during conversion to no-tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 78:143-149.

McVay KA, Budd JA, Fabrizzi BK, Plikha MM, Rice CW, Schlegel AL, Peterson DE, Sweeney DW, Thompson C (2006) Management effects on soil physical properties in long- term tillage studies in Kansas. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70: 434-438.

Moebius- clune BN, Vanes HM, Idowu OJ, Schindelbeck RR, Moebius- clune DJ, Abawi WES, Thies JE, Gugino BK, Luceq R. (2008) Long- term effects on harvesting maize stover and tillage on soil quality. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72: 960-964.

Najafinezhad H, Rashidi N, Ravari SZ (2005) Effect of seedbed preparation methods on yield of grain maize and some soil properties in double cropping system. Seed and Plant 21: 315-330. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Raimboult BA, Vyn TJ (1991) Crop rotation and tillage effects on corn growth and soil structural stability. Agronomy Journal 83: 979-985.

Sharralt BS (1996) Tillage and straw management for modifying physical properties of a sub arctic. Soil and Tillage Research 38: 239-250.

Solhjou AA, Niazi Ardakani J (2001) Effect of sub soiling on soil physical properties and irrigated wheat yield. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 2(7): 65-79. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Tarkalson DD, Hergert G, Cassman KG (2006) Long- term effect of tillage on soil chemical properties and grain yields of a dray land winter wheat- sorghum/corn- fallow rotation in the great  plains. Agronomy Journal 98: 26-33.

Walkley A, Black I (1934) An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science Society of America Journal
37: 29-38.

Yoo G, Nissen TM, Wander MM (2006) Use of physical properties to predict the effects of tillage practices on organic matter dynamics three Illinois soils. Journal of Environmental Quality: 35: 1567-1583.

Zeliha BB, Akbolat D (2005) Evaluation of conventional and conservation tillage system for maize. Journal of Agronomy 4 (2): 122-126.