اثر قارچ میکوریز و کود فسفره بر برخی صفات کمی و کیفی ذرت تحت تنش کم‌آبی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زیست شناسی، واحد اردبیل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد کلیبر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کلیبر، ایران

10.22034/aej.2017.531385

چکیده

کمبود آب از مهم‌ترین عوامل محدودکنندۀ عملکرد گیاهان زراعی در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک است. به منظور تعیین اثر قارچ میکوریز و کود فسفره بر برخی خصوصیات کمی و کیفی ذرت تحت تنش کم‌آبی، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال 1394 در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اردبیل انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل تلقیح با دو قارچ میکوریز Glumus mosseae وGlumus etanicatum و بدون تلقیح به عنوان شاهد، کود فسفر از منبع سوپر‌فسفات تریپل در سه سطح 75، 100 و 125 کیلوگرم در هکتار و سطوح مختلف آبیاری در سه سطح 70، 140 و 210 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک کلاس آ در نظر گرفته شد. تأثیر تیمار‌های آبیاری، فسفر و میکوریز بر تمامی صفات مورد بررسی در سطح 1% معنی‌دار بود، هم‌چنین اثر دوگانه فسفر و میکوریز بر ارتفاع بوته، عملکرد دانه، وزن خشک گیاه، درصد نیتروژن و غلظت فسفر معنی‌دار بود. با افزایش تنش خشکی ارتفاع بوته، طول بلال، تعداد دانه در بلال، وزن خشک گیاه، عملکرد دانه، درصد نیتروژن و فسفر برگ کاهش و درصد پتاسیم برگ افزایش یافت. تلقیح با میکوریز و استفاده از 125 کیلوگرم در هکتار فسفر، شاخص‌های زراعی، محتوای فسفر و پتاسیم برگ ذرت را در شرایط تنش خشکی در مقایسه با گیاهان تلقیح نشده به ‌طور معنی‌‌داری افزایش داد. به طور کلی، کاربرد قارچ میکوریز توأم با فسفر در بستر کاشت سبب افزایش تحمل در برابر تنش کم‌آبی از طریق تأثیر بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی در گیاه ذرت شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of mycorrhiza and phosphorus fertilizer application on some corn quantitative and qualitative traits under drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amirreza Pourrafezi 1
  • Ahmad Afkari 2
1 Master student of Biology Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Kaleybar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kaleybar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water deficient is one of the most important factors limiting yield of field crops in arid and semi-arid regions. To investigate the effects of mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilizers on some quantitative and qualitative traits of corn under water deficient stress; an experiment was carried out as split factorial based on completely block randomized design with three replications in Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch in 2015. The experimental treatments included inoculation with two mycorrhizal fungi species of Glumus mosseae and Glumus etanicatum, phosphorus fertilizer from triple superphosphate source at levels of 75, 100, and 125 kg/ha, and irrigation at levels of 70, 140, and 210 mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan. The effect of irrigation, phosphorus fertilizer and mycorrhiza on all measured traits was significant at 1% probability level. Also interaction of phosphorous fertilizer and mycohrriza was significant in plant height, grain yield, plant dry weight, nitrogen percentage and the phosphorous concentration was significant. Increasing in drought stress caused decrement in plant height, ear length, number on grains per ear, plant dry weight, grain yield, nitrogen percentage and leaf phosphorus content, but increment in leaf potassium percentage content. Furthermore, inoculation with mycorrhiza along with with phosphorus fertilizer at 125 kg/ha, significantly increased agronomic indices and phosphorus and potassium contents of corn leaves under of water stress conditions. On the whole, implementation of mycorrhizal fungi along with phosphorus fertilizer in planting bed caused tolerance enhancement in corn against drought stress through influencing on some physiological characteristics.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • o water deficient stress
  • o phosphorus availability
  • o plant nutrition
  • o triple super-phosphate
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