تعیین یک مدل تجربی برای آبشویی خاک‌های شور اراضی زراعی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه خاکشناسی، مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی و محصولات ارگانیک، واحد میانه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، میانه، ایران.

10.22034/aej.2017.533225

چکیده

در مدیریت پایدار منابع طبیعی،اصلاح خاک­ های شور از اهمیت ویژه ­ای برخوردار است، چرا که وجود بیش از حد نمک ­های محلول در ناحیه ریشه می­ تواند باعث کاهش جذب آب توسط گیاه به دلیل کاهش پتانسیل اسمزی محلول خاک شود. راهبرد لازم در مواجهه با این مسأله، آبشویی نمک­ های انباشته شده از چنین خاکی است. مهمترین مسأله در برنامه ­های آبشویی، برآورد صحیح مقدار آب مورد نیاز برای اصلاح خاک ­های شور است. هدف از این پژوهش، ارایه مدلی تجربی برای تعیین مقدار آب آبشویی مورد نیاز و مقایسه نتایج با برخی مدل­ های تجربی موجود بود. بدین منظور، منطقه­ ای به مساحت 30 هکتار در بخشی از اراضی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه با کلاس شوری و سدیمی S4Aانتخاب شد. آزمون­ های صحرایی به روش غرقاب متناوب با استفاده از استوانه­ های دوگانه و با آرایش مربعی، با یک تیمار و سه تکرار اجرا گردید. در حین آبشویی، از هیچگونه ماده اصلاحی استفاده نشد و تنها با کاربرد 100 سانتی­متر آب آبشویی در چهار تناوب 25 سانتی­متری اجرا شد. نمونه ­های خاک پیش، حین و پس از کاربرد هر تناوب آبیاری از اعماق 25-0، 50-25، 75-50، 100-75، 125-100 و 150-125 سانتی­متری برداشت و تجزیه­ های فیزیکی و شیمیایی مورد نیاز روی آنها انجام شد. آب مورد نیاز از رودخانه قزل­ اوزن تأمین شد. چهار مدل به داده­ های ریاضی برازش و از میان مدل­ های مورد بررسی، مدل لگاریتمی به عنوان مدل برتر انتخاب شد.  با استفاده از این مدل در اراضی زراعی شور دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه، به ازای یک واحد حجم منفذی، نزدیک 70% و به ازای دو واحد حجم منفذی حدود 79% از نمک­ های این خاک­ ها شسته شدند. بنابراین آبشویی نمک ­های محلول از نیمرخ خاک­های شور این سری خاک مجتمع با روش غرقاب متناوب در کاهش نمک­های محلول به­ ویژه در لایه­ های سطحی نیمرخ خاک به دلیل تغییرات متناوب میزان رطوبت خاک مؤثر بوده است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Appropriate empirical model for salt leaching of saline soils at Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch cultivated lands

نویسنده [English]

  • Naser Nazari
Soil Science Department,Research Center of Medicinal Plants and Organic Products, Miyaneh Branch,Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh, Iran
چکیده [English]

In natural resources sustainable management, reclamation of saline soils meets high impact, because excess of soluble salts in root zone can reduce plant water uptake due to osmotic potential decrement of soil solution.The necessary strategy would be leaching of accumulated salts from these soils to overcome this challenge. The most important issue is in leaching practices is assessment of water quantity required for saline soils reclamation. This current study objective was to introduce an empirical model to measure of leaching water and its comparison with some experimental available models. An area of 30 ha with S4A1 salinity/sodicity class in Miyaneh, East Azerbayjan, Iran was selected for this study. The field experiment was conducted in intermittent ponding method by double rings with square arrangement in three replications.  Inleaching process no amendment was used and only 100 cm water leaching was applied in 25 cm intervals.Soil samples were taken from 0-25, 25-50, 50-75, 75-100, 100-125, 125-150 cm of soil depths before, during and after each water rotation and required physical and chemical analyses were performed. The leaching water was supplied from Qizel-Ouzan river. Four mathematical models were fitted to our collected data and logarithmic model was selected as the best model.  Using this model in Saline Soils of Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branchlands, for one unit porevolume, almost 70 and for two unit pore volume about 79% of salts of these soilswere leached. Thus, leaching of soluble salts from the profile of saline soils of Mojtame series soilusing alternating flooding method was effective in reduction of soluble salts, especially in superficial layers of soil profilesdue to intermittent changes of soil moisture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  •  desalinization
  •  modeling
  •  salt affected soils
  •  sustainable management
  1. Akhtar MS, Steenhuis TS, Richards BK, McBride MB (2003) Chloride and lithium transport in large arrays of undisturbed silt loam and sandy loam soil columns. Vadose Zone Journal 2: 715-727.
  2. Anonymous (1988) Soil map of the world. FAO-UNESCO, world soil resources report, No 60, Rome. 119P.
  3. Anonymous (2006) Guideline for application of the empirical and theoretical soil desalinization models, Publication No. 359, Management and Planning Organization of Iran. [in Persian]
  4. Anonymous (2017)Available on-line as <http://www.chbmet.ir/stat/archive/ran/azs/MIANEH/25.asp> on 27 April 2017.
  5. AsadiKapourchal S,  Homaee M,  Pazira E ( 2011)  Desalinization model for large scale application. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research 1(2): 25-32.
  6. AsadiKapourchal S, Homaee M, Pazira E (2013) A parametric desalinization model for large scale saline soil reclamation. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research 3(3): 774-783.
  7. AsadiKapourchal S, Homaee M, Pazira E (2013) Modeling leaching requirement for desalinization of saline soils. Journal of Soil and Water Resources Conservation 2(2): 65-83. [in Persian with English abstract]
  8. Behzad M, Akhond A, Ali M (2002) The desalinization and detoxification empirical equations for salt-affected soils in Mollasani's region- Khuzestan province. The Scientific Journal of Agriculture 25(1): 105-126. [in Persian with English abstract]
  9. Ben-Gal A, Ityel E, Dudley L, Cohen Sh, Yermiyahu U, Presnov E, Zigmond L, Shani U (2008) Effect of irrigation water salinity on transpiration and on leaching requirements: a case study for bell peppers. Agriculture 95: 587-597.
  10. Bernadro MA, Diegvez ET, Jones HG, Chairez FA, Janguren CLT, Cortes AL (2000) Screening and classification of cow pea genotypes for salt tolerance during germination. International Journal of Experimental Botany 67: 71-84.
  11. Burt CM, Isabel B (2005) Leaching of accumulated soil salinity under drip irrigation. American Society of Agriculture Engineers 48(6): 1-7.
  12. Corwin DL, Rhoades JD, Simunek J (2007) Leaching requirement for soil salinity control: steady-state versus transient models. Agriculture Water Management 90(3): 165-180.
  13. Cote CM, Bristow KL, Rose PJ (2000) Increasing the efficiency of solute leaching. Soil Science Society of America Journal 43: 1100-1106.
  14. Dieleman PJ (1963) Reclamation of salt affected soils in Iraq. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement: Venman, Wageningen.
  15. Farifte J, Farshad A, George RJ (2005) Assessing salt–affected soils using remote sensing, solute modeling, and geophysics. Geoderma 130:191-206.
  16. Gardner WR, Brooks RH (1957) A descriptive theory of leaching. Soil Science 83: 295-304.
  17. Gupta SK (1992) Leaching of salt affected Soils. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute: Karnal.
  18. Hamlen CJ Kachanoski RG (2004) Influence of initial and boundary conditions on solute transport through undisturbed soil columns. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 68:404-416.
  19. Hoffman GJ (1980) Guidelines for reclamation of salt-affected soils. Proceedings of the International American Salinity and Water Management. Juar, Mecxico.
  20. Khosla BK, Gupta and RK, Abrol IP (1979) Salt leaching and the effect of gypsum application in a saline-sodic soil. Agricultural Water Management 2(3): 193-202.
  21. Konuku F, Gowing GW, Rose DA (2005) Dry drain: A sustainable solution to water logging and salinity problems in irrigation areas, Agricultural Water Management. 83(1-2):1-12.
  22. Lal P, Chippa BR, Arvind K (2003) Salt affected soils  and crop production, a modern synthesis, AGROBIS(India).
  23. Leffelaar PA, Sharma P (1977) Leaching of a highly saline-sodic soil. Journal of Hydrology 32(3-4): 203-218.
  24. Li FH, Keren R (2009) Calcareous sodic soil reclamation as affected by corn stalk application and incubation: A laboratory study. Pedosphere 19:465-475.
  25. Mohamadzadeh M, Homaee M, Pazira E (2013) A practical model for reclamation of saline and sodic soils. Journal of Soil and Water Resources Conservation 3(1): 43-59. [in Persian with English abstract].
  26. Mohsenifar K, Pazira A, Najafi P (2006) Evaluation of different types of leaching models in two pilots of south east Khoozestan province. 18thWorld Congress of Soil Science. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
  27. Mostafazadeh-Fard B, Heidarpour M, Aghakhani A, Feizi M (2008) Effects of leaching soil desalinization for wheat crop in an arid region. Plant Soil Environment 54:20-29.
  28. Pazira E (2006) Gradual soil desalinization by irrigation water deep percolations. Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Drainage. Iranian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage. Publication No 107. Tehran. Iran. 21-28.[In Persian]
  29. Pazira E, Kawachi T (1981) Studies on appropriate depth of leaching water, Iran. A case study. Journal of Integrated Agricultural Water Use and Freshening Reservoirs. Kyoto University Japan 6: 39-49.
  30. Pazira E, Homaee M (2010) Salt leaching efficiency of subsurface drainage systems at presence of diffusing saline water table boundary: a case study in Khuzestan plains, Iran. Proceedings of the 9th International Drainage Symposium held jointly with CIGR and CSBE/SCGAB. Quebec, Canada.
  31. Pazira E, Keshavarz A, Torii K (1998) Studies on appropriate depth of leaching water, International Workshop on the Use of Saline and Brackish-Water for Irrigation, Indonesia 328-338.
  32. Rahimi H, Ahmad-Nejad H (2005) The effects of leaching in decrease saline and sodic land in the margin of KaveerNamak in Bajestan, Pajouhesh-Va- Sazandegi .88-96. [in Persian with English abstract]
  33. Rajabzadeh F, Pazira E, Mahdian MH (2011) Studies on appropriate and an empirical model for salt leaching of saline-sodic soils of central part of Khuzestan province. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 18(3): 61-85. [in Persian with English abstract]
  34. Rajabzadeh F, Pazira E, Mahdian MH, MahmoodiSh, Heidarizadeh M (2009) Leaching saline and sodic soils along with reclamation-rotation program in the mid-part of Khuzestan, Iran. Journal of Applied Sciences 9(22): 4020-4025.
  35. Reeve RC (1957) The relation of salinity to irrigation and drainage requirements. Proceedings of the Third Congress of International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage. California, USA.
  36. Rodrigues da Silveria K, Rosas Ribeiro M, Bezerra de Oliveira L, John Heck R, Rodrigues da Silveira R (2008) Gypsum-Saturated water to reclaim alluvial saline-sodic and sodic soils. Scientia Agricola 65:69-76.
  37. So HB, Aylmore LAG (1993) How do sodic soils behave? The effects of sodicity on soil physical behavior. Australian Journal of Soil Research 31:761-778.
  38. Talsma T (1966) Leaching of tile-drained saline soils. Australian Journal Soil Research 5: 37-46.
  39. Tedeschi A,  Dell,Aquila R (2005) Effects of irrigation with saline waters, at different concentrations, on soil physical and chemical characteristics. Agricultural Water Management. 77:308-322.
  40. Van der Molen WH (1956) Desalinization of saline soils as a column process. Soil Science 81(1): 19-28.
  41. Verma SK, Gupta RK (1989) Leaching of saline clay soil under two modes of water application. Soil Science 37: 803-809.