عنوان مقاله [English]
Water deficit stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that seriously leads to plant production decrement. Several strategies have been proposed to alleviate of cellular damage caused by water deficit stress and also to improve plant tolerance against water deficit .The study was conducted as factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications in Guilan University. Treatments included proline spraying in two concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/L, and irrigation after 0, 25, 50 and 75% depletion of FC level in stem elongation stage. Water deficit resulted in increase of proline content and catalase but decrease of morphological traits. Proline application had significant impact on all traits under water stress conditions. The foliar application of 100 mg/L proline resulted to improvement of growth and alleviate of water stress damages. On the whole, application of 100 mg/L proline would be recommendable to reach the maximum yield of German chamomile in various water deficit circumstances.
10. Chen C, Dickman MB (2005) Proline suppresses apoptosis in the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum trifolii. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 102(9): 3459-3464.
11. Daneshian J, Majidi E, Hashemi-Dezfouli A, Nour-Mohamadi G (1999) Effect of drought stress on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of two soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 1(3): 35-46. [in Persian whit English abstract]
12. Dulai S, Molnar I, Pronay J, Csernak A, Tarnai R, Molnar-Lang M ( 2006) Effects of drought on photosynthetic parameters and heat stability of PSII in wheat and in Aegilops species originating from dry habitats. Acta Biologica Szegediensis 50(1-2):11-17.
13. Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D, Basra SMA (2009) Plant drought stress effects ,mechanisms and management. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 29(1):185-21.
14. Gamal EL-Din KM, Abd EL-Wahed MSA (2005) Effect of some amino acids on growth and essential oil content of chamomile plant. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 7(2): 376-380.
15. Good A, Zaplachiniski S (1994) The effects of drought on free amino acid accumulation and protein synthesis in Brassica napus. Physiologia Plantarum 90(1): 9-14.
16. Habibi D, Ardakani MR, Mahmoudi A, Asgharzadeh A (2010) Effects of super absorbent polymer and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and oxidative damage of maize under drought stress. International Conference on Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. US & Canada 253-257.
17. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Gill SS, Fujita M (2013) Drought stress responses in plants, oxidative stress, and antioxidant defense (eds). Climate Change and Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance.Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Germany 209-249.
18. Hashem A, Abd_Allah EF, Alqarawi AA, Egamberdieva D (2015) Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 23(1): 39-47.
19. Hoque MA, Okuma E, Banu MNA, Nakamura Y, Shimoishi Y, Murata N (2007) Exogenous proline mitigates the detrimental effects of salt stress more than exogenous betaine by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities. Journal Plant Physiology 164(5):553-561.
20. Hsiao TC (1973) Plant responses to water stress. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 24(1): 519-570.
21. Karima M, Gamal EL-DIN, Abdel-wahed MSA (2005) Effect of some amino acids on growth and essential oil content of chamomile plant. International of Journal of Agriculture and Biology 7(3):376-380.
22. Kaya C, Levent Tuna A, Ashraf M, Altunlu H ( 2007) Improved salt tolerance of melon (Cucumis melo L.) by the addition of proline and potassium nitrate. Environmental and Experimental Botany 60(3): 397–403.
23. Khalil SE, Abd El-Aziz NG, Abou-Leila BH (2010) Effect of water stress and ascorbic acid on some morphological and biochemical composition of Ocimum basilicum plant. Journal of American Science 6(12): 33-44.
24. Khalil Soha E, El-Noemani AA (2012) Effect of irrigation intervals and exogenous proline application in improving tolerance of garden cress plant (Lepidium sativum L.) to water stress. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 8(1):157-167.
25. Kocheva K, Georgive G (2003) Evaluation of the reaction of two contrasting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars in response to osmotic stress with PEG6000. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology 1(1):290-294.
26. Kpoghomou BK, Spara VT, Beyl CA (1990) Screening for tolerance soybean germination and its relationship to seeding responses. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 164(2): 153-159.
27. Mirshekari B (2011) Effect of irrigation time and nitrogen fertilizer on growth period and chamazulene content of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) in cold and semi-arid region. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 27(1):173-187. [in Persian with English abstract]
28. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidant and stress tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Science 7(1): 405-415.
29. Neeraja G, Reddy IP, Gautham B (2005) Effect of growth promoters on growth and yield of tomato cv. Marutham. The Journal of Research Angrau 33(1):68-70.
30. Okuma E, Murakami Y, Shimoishi Y, Tada M, Murata Y (2004) Effects of exogenous application of proline and betaine on the growth of tobacco cultured cells under saline conditions. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 50(2):1301-1305.
31. Pirzad A, Alyari H, Shakiba MR, Zehtab-Salmasi S, Mohammadi A (2006) Essential oil content and composition of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) at different irrigation regimes. Journal of Agronomy 5(2): 451-455.
32. Raskin I (1992) Role of salicylic acid in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 43(2):439-463.
33. Saxena S, Kaushik N, Sharma R (2008) Effect of abscisic acid and proline on in vitro flowering in Vigna aconitifolia. Biologia Plantarum 52: 181-190.
34. Sheokand S, Kumari A, Sawhney V (2008) Effect of nitric oxide and putrescine on ant oxidative responses under NaCl stress in chick pea plants. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 14(4): 355-362.
35. Soltani Gerdfaramarzi MK, Omidi H, Habibi H, Lebaschy MH, Zarezadeh A (2011)The effects of glycine betaine and drought stress on yield, yield components and essential oil in German chamomile genotypes in Yazd region. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 27(1): 279-289. [in Persian with English abstract]
36. Talaat I, Bekheta M, Mahgoub MH (2005) Physiological response of periwinkle plants (Catharanthus roseus L.) to tryptophan and putrescine. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 7: 210-213.
37. Talat A, Nawaz K, Hussian K, Hayat Bhatti K (2013) Foliar application of proline for salt tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. World Applied Sciences Journal 22(4):547-554.
38. Wahid A, Rasul E (2005) Photosynthesis in Leaf, Stem, Flower and Fruit, in: Pessarakli M. (Ed.), Handbook of Photosynthesis, 2nd ed. CRC Press: Florida, 479–497.
39. Wu X, Zhu W, Zhang H, Ding H, Zhang HJ (2011) Exogenous nitric oxide protects against salt-induced oxidative stress in the leaves from two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33:1199-1209.