اثر تنش شوری بر صفات مرتبط با جوانه‏ زنی کینوا (.Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی



شوری یکی از مهمترین تنش ­های غیرزنده بوده که سبب کاهش عملکرد گیاهان زراعی می ­شود. گیاه کینوا اهمیت زیادی در تغذیه انسان داشته و مقاومت بالایی به تنش شوری دارد. به ­منظور بررسی اثرات تنش شوری بر خصوصیات جوانه ­­زنی رقم Q26 کینوا، آزمایشی به ­صورت طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل غلظت ­های مختلف کلریدسدیم (0 ،4 ،8 ،12 ،16 ،20 ،30 ، 40 دسی­ زیمنس بر متر) بر خصوصیات جوانه ­زنی بذر کینوا تحت شرایط آزمایشگاهی بود. شوری اثرات نامطلوبی برصفات مورد مطالعه مانند درصد و سرعت جوانه ­زنی، طول ساقه­ چه و ریشه ­چه، وزن خشک ساقه ­چه و ریشه ­چه، نسبت ساقه ­چه به ریشه­ چه، یکنواختی جوانه­ زنی و مدت زمان لازم جهت رسیدن به 50% جوانه ­زنی داشت. درصد جوانه ­زنی بین تیمار شاهد تا غلظت 30 دسی ­زیمنس بر متر از نظر آماری تفاوتی نداشت ولی در غلظت 40 دسی ­زیمنس بر متر کاهش و به 75% رسید. با افزایش سطوح شوری مدت زمان لازم جهت جوانه ­زنی 50% بذر، افزایش معنی ­داری داشت. سرعت جوانه ­زنی نیز به ­طور معنی ­داری تحت تأثیر سطوح شوری کاهش یافت. نسبت ساقه­ چه به ریشه­ چه با افزایش شوری تا غلظت 20 دسی­ زیمنس بر مترکاهش یافت ولی در غلظت 30 دسی ­زیمنس بر متر به حداکثر رسید. نتایج نشان داد که رقم Q26 کینوا در مرحله جوانه ­زنی، شوری 30 دسی ­زیمنس می ­تواند تحمل نماید. بنابراین می­ توان عنوان کرد که این رقم مقاومت خوبی تا غلظت 30 دسی ­زیمنس بر متر کلرید سدیم داشته و می ­تواند پس از ارزیابی مزرعه ­ای و با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی مناسب رقم مطلوبی برای کشت در شرایط شور باشد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of salinity stress on traits related to germination of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

چکیده [English]

Salinity is one of the most abiotic stress that cased reduce the yield of crops. Quinoa has role importance in human nutrition and have a high resistance to salinity stress. In order to investigate the effects of salinity stress on germination characteristics of quinoa cultivar Q26, experiment was conducted based a complete randomized design (CRD) with four replication. The treatments consisted of different concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,4, 8,12,16,20, 30and40 dS/m) on the germination seed of quinoa under laboratory conditions. Salinity haveundesirable effects ontraits study such as germination percentage, germination rate, shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, stem-to-root ratio (Coefficient of Allometry), germination uniformity and time to 50 percent germination.The percent germinationsignificantly reduce in 30 dS/m salinity,but many traits reduced in concentration 40 dS/m of NaCl. The percentage of germination was not significant between control and 30 dS/m treatment, but at 40 dS/m concentration reduced to 75 percent. With increase salinity levels, time to 50 percent germination increased significantly. Germination rate also reduced significantly by salinity levels.The shoot-to-root ratio decreased with increasing salinity up to 20 dS/m but reached a maximum at 30 dS/m The results showed that quinoa cultivar Q26 has high resistance to salinity stress in germination stage,therefore it can be said that thiscultivar have a good resistance to 30 dS/mof sodium chlorideand can be thebest cultivar for saline conditionafter field evaluation and appropriate climate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  •  Chenopodium quinoa
  •  Germination percent
  •  Germination rate
  •  Salinity level
  •  Stress
  1. Adolf V I, Jacobsen SE, Shabala S (2013) Salt tolerance mechanisms in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 92: 43–54.
  2. Ajmal Khan, M, Gulzar S (2003) Light, salinity and temperature effects on the seed germination of perennial grasses. American Journal of Botany, 90:131-134.
  3. Aloisi I, Parrotta L, Ruiz KB, Landi C, Bini L, Cai G, Biondi S, Del Duca S (2016) New insight into quinoa seed quality under salinity: changes in proteomic and amino acid profiles, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of protein extracts. Frontiers in plant science, 18; 7:656.
  4. Arshadullah M, Suhaib M, RaheelBaber MU, Badar-uz-Zaman IAM, Hyder SI (2017) Growth of chenopodium quiona wild under naturally salt affected soils. Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture.
  5. Ashraf M, and Harris PJC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Science 160: 3-16.
  6. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2005) Pre-sowing seed treatment a shotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth, and crop yield under saline and non-saline conditions. Advances in Agronomy, 88: 223–271.
  7. Badger KS, Unger IA (1989) The effect of salinity and temperature on the germination of the inland halophyte Hordeum japonicum. Canadian Journal of Botany, 67: 1420-1425.
  8. Bavarsadi M, Modhej A, Majdam M (2017) Investigation the effect of salinity tension on germination, seedling growth and ionic content of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.). Crop Physiology Journal, 9 (35):121-136.
  9. Bhargava A, Shukla S, Ohri D (2006) Chenopodium quinoa: an Indian perspective. Industrial Crops and Products, 23:73–87.
  10. Delatorre-Herrera J, Pinto M (2009) Importance of ionic and osmotic components of salt stress on the germination of four quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) selections. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 69: 477-485.
  11. Ejazrasll AW, Rehman A (1997) Germination response of sensitive and tolerant sugarcane lines to sodium chloride. Seed Science Technology, 25: 465-471.
  12. Fakhri Sh, Rahnama A, Meskarbashi M (2017) Effect of of salinity stress on growth and distributions of tissue-specific ion in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 18(4): 302-318. [In Persian with English Abstract]
  13. FAO. (2013) Nutritional value- International Year of Quinoa 2013.
  14. Fischer S, Wilckens R, Jara J, Aranda M, Valdivia W, Bustamante L, Graf  F, Obal I (2017) Protein and antioxidant composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) sprout from seeds submitted to water stress, salinity and light conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 107, 558–564.
  15. Francois LE (1994) Growth, seed yield and oil content of canola grown under saline conditions. Agronomy Journal, 86: 233 - 234.
  16. Fuentes F, Paredes-Gonzales X (2015) Nutraceutical perspectives of quinoa: biological properties and functional applications. Chapter 3.5. In FAO & CIRAD. State of the Art Report of Quinoa in the World in 2013: pp. 286–299.
  17. Gómez-Pando LR, Álvarez-Castro R, de la Barra E (2010) Effect of salt stress on Peruvian germplasm of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. a promising crop. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 196: 391–396.
  18. Gul B, Ansari R, Flowers TJ, Khan MA (2013) Germination strategies of halophyte seeds under salinity.
    Environmental and Experimental Botany, 92: 4–18.
  19. Gunes A, Inal A, Alpaslan M, Eraslan F, Bagci EG, Cicek N (2007) Salicylic acid induced changes on some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) grown under salinity. Journal of Plant Physiology, 164, 728–736.
  20. Hariadi Y, Marandon K, Tian Y, Jacobsen SE, Shabala S (2011) Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa
    (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62:185–193.
  21. Hanson B (1997) Electrical conductivity. Agricultural Salinity and Drainage, 7.
  22. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) (2002) ISTA News Bulletin No. 124, Zurich, Switzerland.
  23. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) (1995) Handbook of Vigor test methods. International
Seed Testing Association, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Jacobsen SE, Quispe H, Mujica A (2001) Quinoa: an alternative crop for saline soils in the Andes. Scientist and Farmer-Partners in Research for the 21st Century. CIP Program Report, 2000, 403-408.
  2. Jacobsen SE, Jensen CR, Liu F (2012) Improving crop production in the arid Mediterranean climate. Field Crops Research, 128: pp.34-47.
  3. Jamali S, sharifan H, hezarjaribi A, sepahvand NA (2016) The effect of different levels of salinity on germination and growth indices of two cultivars of Quinoa. Journal of Water and Soil Resources Conservation, 6(1):87-98. [In Persian with English Abstract].
  4. Khammari I, Sarani Sh, and Dahmardeh M (2007) The effect of salinity on seed germination and growth in six medicinal plants. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 23: 331-339. [In Persian with English Abstract]
  5.  Mamedi A, Tavakkol Afshari R,  Sepahvand NA, Oweyse M (2016) Evaluation of various temperatures on Quinoa plant seeds under salinity stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 46(4): 583-589. [In Persian with English Abstract]
  6. Massai R, Remorin D, Tattini M (2004) Gas exchange, water relation and osmotic adjustment in tow scion/rootstock combinations of prunus under various salinity concentrations. Plant and Soil. 259:153-162.
  7. Naidoo G, and Naidoo Y (2001) Effects of salinity and nitrogen on growth, ion relations and proline accumulation in Triglochin bulbosa. Wetlands Ecology and Management 9: 491-497.
  8. Noor E, Azhar FM, Khan AL (2001) Differences in responses of gossypium hirsutum L. varieties to NaCl salinity at seedling stage. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 3(4): 345-347.
  9. Orsini F, Accorsi M, Gianquinto G, Dinelli G, Antognoni F, Carrasco KBR, Martinez EA, Alnayef M, Marotti I, Bosi S (2011) Beyond the ionic and osmotic response to salinity in Chenopodium quinoa: Functional elements of successful halophytism. Functional Plant Biology, 38: 818–831.
  10. Panuccio MR, Jacobsen SE, Akhtar SS, Muscolo A (2014)Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa. Journal of the Annals of Botany Plants, 6:1-18.
  11. Pirasteh Anoshe H, Sadeghi H.  Emam, Y (2011) Chemical priming with urea and KNO3 enhances maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) seed viability under abiotic stress. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology,
14: 289-295. [In Persian with English Abstract].

  1. Prado FE, Boero C, Gallardo M, González JA (2000) Effect of NaCl on germination, growth, and soluble sugar content in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Seeds. BotanicalBulletin- Academia Sinica Taipei:41, 27–34.
  2. Reddy YTN, Khan MM (2001) Effect of osmopriming on germination, seedling growth and vigour
    of khirni (Mimusops hexandra) seeds. Seed Science Research, 29 (1): 24-27.
  3. Ruiz KB, Biondi S, Oses R, Acuña-Rodríguez IS, Antognoni F, Martinez-Mosqueira EA, Coulibaly A, Canahua-Murillo A, Pinto M, Zurita-Silva A, Bazile D (2014) Quinoa biodiversity and sustainability for food security under climate change. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34: 349–359.
  4. Ruiz-Carrasco K, Antognoni F, Coulibaly AK, Lizardi S, Covarrubias A, Martínez EA, Molina-Montenegro MA, Biondi S, Zurita-Silva A. (2011) Variation in salinity tolerance of four lowland genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as assessed by growth, physiological traits, and sodium transporter gene expression. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 49:1333–1341.
  5. Shabala S, Hariadi Y, Jacobsen SE (2013) Geno-typic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na+ loading and stomatal density. Journal of Plant Physiology, 170: 906–914.
  6. Shainberg I, Oster JD (1978) Quality of irrigation water. International Irrigation Information Centre. IIIC Publication No. 2. Bet Dagan, Israel, 65.
  7. Shiyab S (2011) Effects of NaCl application to hydroponic nutrient solution on macro and micro
    elements and protein content of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of Food, Agriculture and
    Environment, 9: 350-356.
  8. Soltani A, Maddah V (2010) Simpie, applied programs for education and research in agronomy. Ecological Agriculture Association, Shahid Beheshti University press. 80 p. [in Persian].
  9. Soltani A, Galeshi S, Zenali E, Latifi N (2001) Germination seed reserve utilization and growth of chickpea as affected by salinity and seed size. Seed Science and Technology, 30:51-60.
  10. Sun Y, Lindberg S, Shabala L, Morgan S, Shabala S, Jacobsen SE (2017) A comparative analysis of cytosolic Na+ changes under salinity between halophyte quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and glycophyte pea (Pisum sativum). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 141: 154–160.
  11. Vega‐Gálvez A, Miranda M, Vergara J, Uribe E, Puente L,  Martínez EA (2010) Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90 (15) pp. 2541-2547.
  12. Wang Y, Li K and Li X (2009) Auxin redistribution modulates plastic development of root system architecture under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Plant Physiology, 166(15): 1637-1645.